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   2022| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 7, 2022

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Medicinal plants of Arunachal Pradesh used in Ayurveda preparations: An overview
Anjana Janardhanan, GM Prashanth Kumar, N Shiddamallayya
January-March 2022, 7(1):11-22
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_75_21  
Ayurveda is an Indian traditional medicine system practiced since the Vedic period. Plant, animal, and mineral origin crude drugs have been used in various formulations as mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Since a few decades, crude drugs of plant origin are gaining more importance. Most of the plants collected for formulations are available in surroundings of the village and nearby human dwelling sources and they are limited in forests. Most of the Ayurvedic formulations contain crude drugs of plant origin as major ingredients. As mentioned in the classical literature of Ayurveda, plants are employed in different ways to treat human and animal disorders. This study aims at exploring all crude drugs of plant origin available in the state of Arunachal Pradesh either cultivated or grown wild. Identifying those plant species serves as a tapping resource for utilizing the processed drugs for further industrial /pharmaceutical usage with respect to classical formulations. A comprehensive review of the Ayurvedic literature and the floras of Arunachal Pradesh found that classical formulations are made of 169 plant species belonging to 146 genera and 68 families. The state is rich in biodiversity, with a diverse range of plants utilized for therapeutic reasons; it also plays a vital role in meeting the local people’s pharmaceutical and nutritional needs.
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EDITORIAL
Anukta vichara in Ayurveda: Potential area for knowing the unknown
Rabinarayan Acharya
January-March 2022, 7(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_49_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pharmaceutical standardization of Nagaphani Phalasava (fermented dosage form of Opuntia elatior Mill. fruits)
Sharada Anand, Rabinarayan Acharya
January-March 2022, 7(1):23-37
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_81_21  
BACKGROUND: Fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. (OE) Cactaceae, commonly recognized as Red Prickly pear, is reported for multiple pharmacological actions, yet under-utilized due to its perishable nature and seasonal availability. Asava not only helps in elongation of shelf life but also offers continued extraction of the active compounds. Hence, the study has been carried out to develop and standardize a novel dosage form Nagaphani Phalasava (fermented preparation of OE fruits). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Asava was prepared in two seasons, that is, winter (December 2020–January 2021) and summer (April 2021–May 2021). A total of nine pilot batches were prepared in each season, that is, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 days, considering the duration of fermentation. Each batch was opened the next day, that is, 8th, 11th, 13th, 16th, 19th, 22nd, 25th, 28th, and 31st day, respectively, to observe the tests of perfectness and carry out physicochemical analysis including pH, specific gravity (Sp gr), density, total solids, alcohol percentage, and sugar analysis. The batch that showed all the tests of perfectness was considered ideal and repeated in triplicate. RESULTS: In both seasons, 30 days batch was considered ideal and repeated in triplicate. Yield was 68.73% in winter and 59.44% in summer season. Organoleptic features were more prominent in winter batch compared to summer batch. Average pH, Sp gr, density, total solids, alcohol percentage, total sugar, reducing sugar, and nonreducing sugar were 2, 1.0591, 1.0225, 20.48, 11, 17.56, 4.6, and 12.9 in winter and 2, 1.1198, 1.0707, 27.31, 4, 12.3, 7.5, and 4.8 in summer, respectively. CONCLUSION: Preparation of Nagaphani phalasava requires a duration of 30 days in both winter and summer seasons. The winter batch Asava possessed more evident organoleptic features compared to summer batch. Product yield was comparatively high in winter. The alcohol percentage was under the limits prescribed for Asavarishta in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API).
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Shelf-life evaluation of Kasisadya Ghritam prepared by two different methods: A preliminary evaluation
Pramod R Yadav, R Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, Preeti Singh
January-March 2022, 7(1):38-46
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_2_21  
BACKGROUND: Kasisadya ghritam (KG) is a herbomineral formulation comprising 32 natural ingredients mentioned in Sharangadhara samhita. Different methods of preparation have been mentioned regarding the same especially in respect to the heating pattern, that is, Agnipaki and Suryatapi. As this medicine has shown promising results in various ailments since the ages, the use of this medicine has become very prevalent in recent clinical practices. The globalization and commercialization of Ayurveda sought for the stability of this medicine is unfortunately not evaluated to date. Therefore, a plan had been made to evaluate the shelf life of this formulation by following parameters prevalent in the respective scenario. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of both the samples of Kasisadya ghritam Suryatapi (KGS) and Kasisadya ghritam Agnipaki (KGA) through basic analytical parameters and chromatographic fingerprinting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stability period of both the samples was determined by the accelerated stability study as per International Council of Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines Q1A (R2). The test drugs were stored at 40°C ± 2°C temperature and 75 ± 5% relative humidity and withdrawn at the intervals of 0, 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of storage. Physicochemical parameters of KGS and KGA were analyzed at the intervals of 0, 1, 3, and 6 months, whereas chromatographic fingerprinting was done initially and after 6 months of the study. Based upon the observations, intercept, slope, 10% degradation of the sample, and the shelf life of both the samples were calculated. RESULTS: Basic analytical parameters showed both the samples deteriorate by time. By calculating the analytical data, 10% degradation of KGS was found in specific gravity (0.83), viscosity (194.4), acid value (6.58), peroxide value (1.97), and total fatty matter (78.83). The data of KGA revealed 10% degradation in parameters, that is, specific gravity (0.8295), viscosity (496.8), acid value (0.864), peroxide value (1.341), and total fatty matter (82.81). Rf values obtained from high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) of both samples initially and after 6 months showed minimum deterioration of the product. Microbial count and heavy metals were below the permissible limits in both the samples. Accelerated stability study reveals the shelf life of KGS as 3.8 years, whereas that of KGA as 4.4 years. CONCLUSION: Rule 161 B of Drugs and Cosmetics Rule, 1945 mentioned the shelf life of medicated Ghrita as 2 years. This time period is general, and different formulations may have different shelf lives based upon several factors. The samples tested in the current study, that is, KGS and KGA, are found to have a shelf life of 3.8 and 4.4 years, respectively, which are more than the time specified in the guidelines. The findings suggest that the sample prepared by subjecting to heat has more shelf life than the sample prepared by subjecting to sunlight.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Critical note on pretreatment (Shodhana) of Bakuchi (Psoralea corylifolia L.)
Sarika Makwana, Nikhil Mehere, Prashant Bedarkar, Patgiri Biswajyoti
January-March 2022, 7(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_64_21  
Bakuchi (Psoralea corylifolia L.) is an herb mainly indicated for the treatment of skin diseases in the classical text of Ayurveda. Before the use of several potent herbs, metals, minerals, and poisonous plants, specific processing is mentioned to be done to minimize the untoward effect of the drug or to make the drug more suitable for further processing as mentioned in Ayurveda classics. Such procedures are considered pretreatment (Shodhana). Although classical texts of Ayurveda have mentioned pretreatment of Bakuchi fruits before their therapeutic use, its internal administration after processing is not prevalent in clinical practice. This pretreatment may be considered as the Shodhana procedure of Bakuchi. Accordingly, data were assembled in the context of pretreatment of Bakuchi from Ashtanga Samgraha, Gadanigraha, Rasoudhhara Tantra, Vrunda Madhava, Anandakanda, Rasakamadhenu, and from published researches. Three procedures, viz. Nimajjana (immersion), Prakshalana (washing with water), and Bharjana (roasting), were mentioned for pretreatment of Bakuchi. Pretreatments are noted as soaking of Bakuchi fruits in Gomutra (cow’s urine) or Ardraka Swarasa (juice of Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for 7 or 21 days or Bibhitaka Kwatha (decoction of Terminalia belerica Roxb.) for 1 night and Bharjana (roasting) in Ghee. Blisters occur because of the presence of furanocoumarins like psoralen in formulations, which holds Bakuchi. Pretreatment performed on Bakuchi fruits may derive newer chemical moieties, further rendering it helpful to minimize adverse drug reactions, increase the efficacy of Bakuchi or its containing formulation, and further break the pathogenesis of the disease.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bioactive potential of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. plant: A wild edible plant
Priyanka Suresh Patil, Varsha Dilip Jadhav
January-March 2022, 7(1):55-61
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_41_21  
BACKGROUND: Bridelia retusa is a species which belongs to the genus Bridelia, included in Phyllanthaceae family which is a deciduous, large- or small-sized tree. It is generally referred as Mahavira or aghan found in dry deciduous regions. The present investigation for study of phytochemical compounds, proximate analysis, and mineral composition of leaves, stem, stem bark, unripened, and ripened fruit of B. retusa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The collected material was dried and crushed into fine powder for further analysis. For the study of presence of secondary metabolites, qualitative phytochemical analysis of plant was carried out. For the proximate analysis, various plant parts such as leaves, stem, stem bark, unripened, and ripened fruit were used. In the proximate analysis, different parameters like ash, crude fiber, crude protein, moisture, dry matter, and crude fat was studied. Different macro- and micro-elements were studied from plant by standard method. RESULT: In the present work, highest amounts of nitrogen (2.42 ± 0.23%), potassium (1.97 ± 0.1%), iron (697.55 ± 1.29 ppm), zinc (201.05 ± 0.5 ppm), copper (132.73 ± 0.28 ppm), manganese (330.09 ± 1.2 ppm), and sodium (0.10±3.72 %) were found in the leaves of B. retusa. Higher phosphorus (0.21±0.1%) and calcium (1.67±0.2%) in stem bark was observed in B. retusa, respectively. The above results revealed rich amounts of macro- and micro-elements; hence, the whole plant is nutritionally important. The ash and crude proteins were more in leaves, and crude fibers are in the stem when compared with other parts of B. retusa. In the present study, we found that ash (17.5%) in the fruit, dry matter (90%) in the stem bark, crude fiber (52.5%) in the stem, crude fat (62.5%), crude protein (15.12%), and moisture (20%) in leaves were more when compared with other parts of the plant. Tannins and saponins are frequently observed in all parts of the plant. Alkaloids were present in all parts of the plant, except stem. CONCLUSION: The results revealed rich amounts of macro- and micro-elements; hence, the whole plant is nutritionally important. The acetone and alcohol extracts show highest phytochemicals than the other solvent extract. The plants are rich in tannin and saponin.
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Comparative shelf-life study of Raw Guggulu (Commiphora wightii oleo-gum resin) and Shodhita Guggulu (cow urine processed C. wightii oleo-gum resin)
Vaibhav Charde, Chandrashekar Jagtap, Vijay Kumar, Vikram Kushwaha, Jyotika Grewal, Sujeet K Mishra, Santosh K Shakya, Hemant Soni, Gagandeep Singh, Gajji Babu, Arjun Singh, Ravindra Singh, Shruti Khanduri, Bhagwan Sahai Sharma, Narayanam Srikanth
January-March 2022, 7(1):47-54
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_14_22  
BACKGROUND: Shelf-life is an important aspect of raw as well as finished drugs. Recently, shelf-life parameters have been included in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. The objective of this article is to evaluate and compare the long-term shelf-life study of Raw Guggulu (RG) (C. wightii oleo-gum resin) and Shodhita Guggulu (SG) (cow urine processed C. wightii oleo-gum resin). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A stability chamber with environmental conditions 30°C ± 2°C/60% ± 5% RH was used for long-term shelf-life study of RG and SG. Physico-chemical parameters such as loss on drying, pH, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water extractive value, and alcohol extractive value were tested at regular frequency (0th, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month). RESULTS: Significant changes have been observed w.r.t. analysis of physico-chemical parameters. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that the shelf-life of RG ranged from 42 to 66 months and shelf-life of SG ranged from 39 to 62 months. CONCLUSION: The average shelf-life of RG and SG was found out to be 55.16 and 48.16 months, respectively. These studies may help to understand the shelf-life of various ayurvedic formulations of RG and SG.
  182 43 -
Preparation of Gomaya Swarasa (cow dung-expressed juice): A preliminary pharmaceutical evaluation
KS Sariga, Rabinarayan Acharya
January-March 2022, 7(1):75-80
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_78_21  
BACKGROUND: Gomaya Swarasa (Cow dung expressed juice) is one of the commonly used materials in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics. Available Ayurvedic pharmacopeias provide inadequate information about the process of preparation of Gomaya Swarasa. This article deals with the preparation of Gomaya Swarasa and its preliminary pharmaceutical evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh Gomaya (cow dung) obtained from Bos primigenius indicus species was used to prepare Gomaya Swarasa by using two different methods: first, by keeping a piece of clean muslin cloth inside the Gomaya for one Yama three hours and extracting the Swarasa by squeezing it. In another method, water was added, in three different ratios: half, same, and double the quantity with freshly collected Gomaya and properly mixed, set aside for three hours, and finally kept in a muslin cloth and tied like a Pottali for twenty four hours. The Swarasa obtained were collected on the following day; the yield, consistency, specific gravity, and pH were analyzed following standard methods of API. Each method was repeated three times. RESULTS: No yield was obtained in the first method of extraction. The maximum quantity of Swarasa obtained was 74% in 1:2 (Gomaya: water) ratio dilution, followed by 37.4% in 1:1 ratio dilution. The consistency of Swarasa obtained in 1:1/2 dilution was very thick with an average specific gravity of 1.009, whereas that in 1:1 dilution is somewhat thick but more liquid in nature with an average specific gravity of 1.006. The Swarasa obtained from 1:2 dilution is thin and of liquid consistency with an average specific gravity of 1.004. The maximum average pH obtained is 7.56 in 1:1/2 dilution, and the minimum average pH is 6.28 in 1:2 ratio dilution. CONCLUSION: Gomaya Swarasa prepared by adding the double quantity of water can be taken as a better method of preparation in terms of yield, consistency, and specific gravity. However, the pH of Gomaya Swarasa from this method was slightly acidic (average pH-6.28) in nature. Thus, Swarasa from 1:1 dilution can be taken as standard in terms of pH, where the other factors such as yield, consistency, and specific gravity are also acceptable. The Swarasa obtained from different dilutions can be used in pharmaceutics based on its need in terms of pH, yield, consistency, and specific gravity.
  174 48 -
Comparative physicochemical analysis of Jalakumbhikshara prepared with water and cow urine
Amisha P Patel, Prashant Bedarkar, Anup B Thakar
January-March 2022, 7(1):62-74
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_37_21  
INTRODUCTION: Kshara preparation is one of the prominent and widely practiced dosage forms of Ayurveda specifically indicated for the management of Kaphaja Galaganda (goiter). Varied descriptions regarding method of preparation and type of Kshara are mentioned in classics. Sushruta Samhita mentions the use of either water or cow urine as the solvent. No pharmaceutico-analytical study has been documented on Jalakumbhikshara till date. The aim of this study was to prepare Jalakumbhikshara with water (JKW) and cow’s urine (JKC) and to evaluate their analytical profile by physicochemical analysis, chromatographic pattern, and spectral method (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). MATERIALS AND METHODS: JKW and JKC were prepared by addition of six times of media (water or cow urine) to the ash of dried whole plant of Jalakumbhi followed by decantation and heating to dryness, which in turn is followed by analysis through physicochemical, sensory, spectral, and chromatographic methods. RESULTS: JKW and JKC were differentiable on the basis of color, taste, and smell. Physicochemical analysis of JKW and JKC reveals significant difference in ash value and water-soluble ash, whereas it shows insignificant difference in water-soluble extractives and acid-insoluble ash, respectively. Jalakumbhi Kshara prepared by water and cow urine predominantly contains 44.31%, 21.3% and 43.3%, 19.41% of potassium and chloride, respectively, with trace elements such as Na, Br, I, Cu, Mg, Ph, and Fe. Both the types of Kshara contain organic moieties, with comparatively 15.21% more organic content in Jalakumbhi Kshara prepared with cow’s urine. CONCLUSION: Change of extraction media for preparation of Jalakumbhi Kshara from water to cow urine alters organoleptic and physicochemical attributes of Kshara. Jalakumbhi Kshara prepared with water and cow’s urine has predominance of K and Cl ions. Cow’s urine is a better medium for extraction of inorganic alkaline earth elements in the preparation of Jalakumbhi Kshara than that of water.
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