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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2022
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 211-275

Online since Monday, November 21, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Ayurveda pharmaceutics: Need for innovation p. 211
Rabinarayan Acharya
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_153_22  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A narrative literary review on design of anti-diabetic (Prameha) formulations from various Ayurveda treatises p. 213
Amulya Kannan, Raghavendra Naik, N Kavya, KP Monica, Sulochana Bhat
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_40_22  
Ayurveda texts spanning from 100 BC to 18th AD, which have not been frequently scrutinised for management of Prameha (Diabetes mellitus) have been selected. This review is expected to enrich the documentary evidences about classical references on formulations related to Prameha (Diabetes mellitus) as add on to future researches. A total of 524 formulations out of 15 Ayurveda texts have been considered to observe drug design methods in this review paper. Formulations with Phalashruti (verse with indications) of “Prameha” were scrutinised. The preliminary data was categorised based on their dosage forms, indications of formulations in accordance to Doshas (regulatory functional factors of the body), adjuvants etc and the result have been substantiated. Drugs and formulations most enumerated amongst these 15 texts have been presented. Kwatha (decoction) is most enumerated dosage form (241 formulations). Honey is most enumerated adjuvant (172 formulations). Nyagrodadhi gana (kwatha or churna) and Dhanvantara ghrita were the most frequently mentioned formulation. Triphala was the most enlisted drug amongst 323 formulations (in formulation with less than 10 ingredients). Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm.f.), Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Arn.) Patha (Cissampelos pareira L.) were most repeated drugs indicated in Kaphaja Prameha, Pittaja Prameha and Vataja Prameha respectively (in formulation with less than 10 ingredients). This review gives comprehensive detail related to formulations indicated in Prameha (Diabetes mellitus) compiled from 15 Ayurveda treatises.
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Safety profile of Ayurveda Rasoushadhi: An appraisal of technical reports on quality and safety of selected Rasakalpa—Metal and mineral-based Ayurvedic formulations p. 221
Bidhan Mahajon, Sarada Ota, Shruti Khanduri, Bhagwan Sahai Sharma, Sanjaya Kumar, Narayanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_73_22  
To a large extent, the safety of Rasoushadhi (metal and mineral-based formulations) is evident by its long history of clinical use. However, certain published literature generated misconceptions regarding their quality and safety across the globe. Thus, to protect the massive trust in Ayurveda, a multidisciplinary study was conducted by Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences for the assessment of the quality and safety of eight important Rasoushadhi, viz., Arogyavardhini vati (Ayurvedic Formulary of India [AFI]-I, 20:4), Mahayogaraja guggulu (AFI-I, 5:6), Vasantakusumakar rasa (AFI-I, 20:42), Mahalaxmivilas rasa (AFI-I, 20:27), Rasamanikya (AFI-I, 20:33), Makaradhwaja (AFI-I, 15:2), Kajjaliyoga (AFI-III, 15:15), and Rasasindur (AFI-I, 15:6) under Golden Triangle Partnership (GTP) scheme. The present article is an appraisal of the published Technical Reports (Volumes 1 and 2) of GTP that highlights the collective safety outcome of these selected Rasoushadhi. Study investigators prepared these Rasoushadhi in a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-certified pharmacy, and they performed repeated-dose oral toxicity studies per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development-408 guidelines in Wistar albino rats. All the Rasoushadhi were orally administered at different dose levels for 90 days. Periodically, observations were done by the investigators for clinical signs of toxicity, mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, and feed consumption. After 90 days, they performed hematology, biochemistry, electrolytes, relative organ weight, and histological examinations. The study concluded that there were no significant differences in the observed parameters between the control and Rasoushadhi-treated rats. In histological examinations, also they found no toxicologically significant abnormalities related to any Rasoushadhi treatment. Based on the result, the investigators concluded that all the formulations were safe up to the tested high dose levels.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Detoxification of Datura metel L. seeds using Shodhana (purifying process) and estimation of scopolamine content p. 229
Ajay Kumar Meena, Poorna Venktaraman, Ravindra Singh, Kusuma Ganji, Narayanam Srikanth, Kartar Singh Dhiman, Mohit Motiwale, Sadhna Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar Dixit
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_45_21  
BACKGROUND: The seeds of Datura metel L. are classified as toxic in the classical texts of Ayurveda and hence need to be purified by the traditional method as mentioned before using for medications. METHODS: In this study, the seeds of Datura metel L. were detoxified by Shodhana, an Ayurvedic purifying process. The process of detoxification (Shodhana) was performed by soaking the seeds in gomutra (cow’s urine) and boiling them in godugdha (cow’s milk). The preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analyses were performed simultaneously for the processed and unprocessed Datura metel L. seeds. The total ethanol and chloroform extracts of the processed and unprocessed Datura metel L. seed samples were used for chemical profiling using high-performance thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Scopolamine content was quantified by HPLC in both processed and unprocessed seeds. RESULTS: Scopolamine was not detected in the chloroform extract. The ethanol extract found that the detoxification process has removed scopolamine content in the processed Datura metel L. seed. An attempt has been made to identify the chemical constituents responsible for the toxicity by measuring the level of major chemical constituents before and after the detoxification of seeds. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the process of Shodhana was effective by reducing the content of scopolamine, and hence it was mandatory and supports its use in medications.
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An exploration of the preliminary unit operative pharmaceutical process of Vajra Bhasma (diamond ash) p. 243
Dipali Narendrakumar Parekh, Dharmishtha J Bopaliya, Swapnil Y Chudhary, Biswajyoti J Patgiri
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_22_22  
BACKGROUND: Vajra (diamond) is a precious gemstone; classified under the Ratna Varga in Ayurveda. More than 13 GMP-certified companies are preparing and marketing Vajra Bhasma (diamond ash) for challenging disorders like cancer, tumors, etc. After reviewing their method for the preparation of Vajra Bhasma; mostly used the reference of Rasa Tantra Sara Evam Siddha Yoga Samgraha. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the preliminary unit operative pharmaceutical process of Vajra Bhasma with the same method. METHODS: Vajra has been analysed by Raman spectroscopy to standardize the material. The Shodhana (purifying process) was carried out with 108 times Nisechana (quenching). The Marana (the process of making Bhasma) has been carried out with Gulab Arka (rose distillate) and Kumari Swarasa (aloe vera juice) as a Marana media under the temperature of 900°C in an electric muffle furnace and maintained for 1 h. Vajra Bhasma was analysed for organoleptic and physicochemical parameters. RESULTS: 108 times of repeated heating and quenching resulted in 2.84% weight loss after Shodhana. A 9.30% weight gain was found at the end of the Marana process. 60 Putas (a measure of heat) were sufficient for the Bhasma Sidhhi Lakshanas like Varitratva (sprinkled Bhasma floating on water), Nishchandratva (lustreless), etc. CONCLUSION: This study led to a better elucidation of the medicinal product Vajra Bhasma in accordance with Ayurveda. Medicines in Ayurvedic approaches to preparation should be used to consider recent designs and practices. The soaking method of the Bhavana method is advisable in the Marana process.
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Documentation and validation of the potential ethno-medicinal practices from Almora forest range, Uttarakhand, India p. 253
MS Rawat, Amit Kumar Rai, Deepshikha Arya, Sanjiv Kumar, Bidhan Mahajon, Chinmay Rath, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Anupam K Mangal, Narayanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_87_22  
BACKGROUND: Majority of the people in developing countries depend upon traditional medicine (TM) for their healthcare. Many local traditional healers in the Uttarakhand region are providing treatment for various ailments by using medicinal plants successfully. Present study aimed to collect and document the folklore claims practiced in the region of Almora forest range for treatment of various ailments for further validation, which will help in search of new treatment modalities for different disease conditions. METHODS: Medico-Ethno Botanical Survey (MEBS) was conducted in the region of Almora forest range of Almora forest division which is located between 29030’.08”N to 29058’.48” N latitude and 79004’.18”E to 790 47’30”E longitude at the southern edge of Kumaun hills in Uttarakhand during the month of July, 2018. The survey team met the traditional healers and interviewed them for documentation of Ethno-medicinal practices (EMPs). A structured standard questionnaire/format was used for systematic documentation of each claim. RESULTS: During the survey, potent ethno-medicinal practices based on 15 medicinal plant species were recorded which are being used for different common disease conditions by the local traditional healers. CONCLUSION: Inhabitants in remote and far-flung areas are still relying upon the medicinal plants for the management of various common ailments. But these EMPs have been declining in the recent period due to several factors. Hence, there is a critical need to document this traditional knowledge for widespread utilization to explore new treatment modalities for various disease conditions.
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Evaluation of nutritional and functional properties of economically important seaweeds p. 260
Sushma Kumari, Kamleshwar Singh, Pratibha Kushwaha, K Suresh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_56_22  
BACKGROUND: Seaweeds or marine macroalgae are plant-like organisms occurring abundantly (either attached to rocks in the oceans or to other hard substrata in coastal areas). Being nutritionally rich in proteins, vitamins, fatty acids (FAs), and elements such as iodine, iron, and calcium, they are potential functional food ingredients. Their nutritional profile changes with climate and species. Lack of knowledge regarding their nutritional richness makes them less popularly used in our daily diet. This study investigates the nutritional composition and functional properties of six seaweeds for their utilization in the daily human diet. METHODS: Nutritional profiles of six seaweeds (five collected from India and one from South Korea) were evaluated in this study. Their protein content was estimated on the basis of the nitrogen value (N × 6.25). Mineral content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic mass spectroscopy. Extraction of FAs methyl esters (FAMEs) was conducted followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Vitamins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the dry seaweed samples were conducted. Functional properties [water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), and foaming capacity (FC)] of dried seaweed samples were determined using standard methods. RESULTS: The protein content of the studied seaweeds ranged from 7.940 to 36.190 g/100 g DW. Among the studied minerals, high Na content was observed in Enteromorpha compressa (i.e., 6.660 ± 0.013 mg/100 g) and high K in Kappaphycus alvarezii (5.590 ± 0.001 mg/100 g), respectively. FA profiling showed that Gracilaria sp. contained the highest saturated FAs. Maximum water-soluble vitamin, e.g., vitamin E (tocopherol) 0.643 mg/100 g contents, was seen in Caulerpa racemosa, whereas high ascorbic acid content was observed in E. compressa (2.975 mg/100 g). Riboflavin (B2) content of Ulva lactuca was 0.197 mg/100 g. FTIR, DSC, and TGA analyses were also conducted. WHC, OHC, and FC of the dried seaweeds revealed their applicability in food products. CONCLUSION: The nutritional and functional properties of the six seaweeds investigated suggest that they could be used for preparing functional food products. Promoting the use of seaweed as food and fodder could lead to enhancement of seaweed cultivation and harvesting, which in turn could also improve the socio-economic status of the coastal-dwellers.
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