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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 197-259

Online since Tuesday, May 17, 2022

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Bioinformatics and network pharmacology: Scope and relevance in Ayurveda research p. 197
Narayanam Srikanth
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Standard manufacturing procedure of Yava kshara (alkali preparation from Hordeum vulgare L.) with cotton wick method p. 200
Punam Aggarwal, R Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
Background: Ayurveda deals with minerals, metals, and herbs in therapeutics that have been classified into several groups. Among them, Yava kshara (alkali preparation made with the whole plant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a type of Kshara (alkaline preparation) that is useful in various diseases. Addition of cotton wick in the procedure seems to facilitate the process and increase the yield. However, its actual utility is not yet reported. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Yava kshara by using the cotton wick method. Materials and Methods: The method of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India was followed with addition of cotton wick to decant the liquid layers. Yava panchanga (whole plant—root, stem, leaf, flower, and seed of H. vulgare L.) was collected from the fields of Derwala, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan and authenticated at the National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi. Plant was dried and converted into ashes, washed for three times, and the process of decantation by cotton wick method was repeated to obtain alkaline preparation. Results: An average of 11.72% w/w Yava kshara was obtained from the first filtrate. The second and third filtrates yielded 2.9% and 1.26%, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of cotton wick facilitates decanting process and obtaining clear liquids. The yield is comparatively higher than the earlier reports.
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Shelf life evaluation of Vasaharitaki Avaleha and Vasaharitaki granules: An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation with its modified dosage form p. 206
Neelam Matwan, Niladri Bhattacharjya, Pramod Yadav, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
The stability of the product is its ability to resist deterioration due to environmental or microbial degradation, which is also called as shelf life, akaSaviryata Avadhi in Ayurveda. Vasaharitaki Avaleha (VHA) is a purely polyherbal formulation, which is mentioned for the management of various ailments of the respiratory system such as Shwasa (bronchial asthma) and Kasa (cough). There is always an issue regarding the palatability of this drug found in daily practices. Alteration or modification of the dosage form is a way to recover this problem without compromising the efficacy and stability of the drug. Therefore, this study was planned and the stability data of VHA and Vasaharitaki granules (VHG) is being presented based on primary physicochemical parameters (pH, loss on drying [LOD], extractive value, total sugar, total fat, and microbial count) and chromatographic fingerprinting as per International Council of Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines for Accelerated Study. The product withdrawn periods were 0, 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of storage in a condition of 40°C ± 2°C temperature and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. As per the current gazette notification, the shelf life of Avaleha and granules is not more than 3 years. On the basis of the accelerated stability data, 10% degradation of VHA was found in pH (3.312), LOD (11.088), total sugar (53.28), total fat (0.198), total plate count (378) parameters, and 10% degradation of VHG was found in pH (3.762), LOD (5.724), total sugar (63.702), water-soluble extractive (68.913), alcohol-soluble extractive (40.968), and total plate count (864.9). On the basis of these alterations, the stability period of VHA and VHG has been calculated to be 3.3 years and 2.8 years, respectively.
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Antiproliferative potential of Amalaki Rasayana and the effect of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub on the cytotoxicity p. 218
Santhi Subramanyan, Deepika Selvakumar, Vishnu K Omanakuttan, Kaustabh K Maiti, Ramavarma L Varma, Rajmohan V Pillai, Kokkuvayil V Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Amalaki Rasayana is one of the prominent rejuvenating Rasayana described in Indian traditional Ayurvedic medicine for healthy aging. AIM: This work is focused on the comparative evaluation of the antiproliferative potential of AR, amla (a constituent), and Butea monosperma (BM; a component in the preparation) in the human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell line and normal lung fibroblast (WI-38) cell lines. Also, we carried out the identification of phytoconstituents from the heartwood of BM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth inhibitory effects of the extracts of AR, amla, and BM were carried out using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Isolation and characterization of compounds from BM were carried out using column chromatography and various spectroscopic techniques. RESULTS: AR exhibited a significant anticancer activity in HeLa cells compared to amla, and the Rasayana was found to be less cytotoxic toward normal cells. The results indicated an increase in the cytotoxicity to HeLa cells when amla is processed compared to AR in the heartwood of BM. The phytochemical investigation of BM revealed the presence of isoflavones as the major constituent. The isolated compounds were formononetin, daidzein, prunetin, lupiwighteone, afrormosin, erypoegin K, genistein, sterols β-sitosterol and stigmasterol and a monosaccharide d-mannitol. Erypoegin K, lupiwighteone, and d-mannitol were reported for the first time from this species and afrormosin was reported for the first time from the heartwood. CONCLUSIONS: Antiproliferative potential of AR was confirmed on cervical carcinoma. BM significantly enhances the therapeutic potential of AR, and AR could be an effective chemopreventive agent.
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Preparation of Vetas Ghana (a semisolid form of Salix alba L. stem bark aqueous extract) and its analysis by using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry p. 239
Chandrashekhar Jagtap, Vaibhav Charde, Vikram Kushwaha, Jyotika Garewal, Santosh K Shakya, Vijay Kumar, Gajji Babu, Arjun Singh, Ravindra Singh, Bhagwan Sahai Sharma, Shruti Khanduri, Narayanam Srikanth
BACKGROUND: Vetas Ghana is a semi-solid prepared from the aqueous extract of stem bark of Salix alba L. (Vetas). Vetas Ghana is an important Ayurvedic intermediate used in various herbal and cosmetic formulations. There is no advance analysis of Vetas Ghana preparation reported yet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to prepare Vetas Ghana and to study phytochemicals by using advanced analytical instruments such as high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and tandem liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vetas Ghana was analyzed by physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying, pH, total ash, acid insoluble ash, total soluble solids, and its major metabolites were checked by using advanced chromatographic tools such as HPTLC and LC-QTOF-MS/MS. RESULTS: In comparison of Vetas with Vetas Ghana, drastic changes in the parameters such as pH, and ash (total and acid insoluble) were observed. In the HPTLC study, after derivatization marker compound epicatechin is detectable in Vetas and Vetas Ghana. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of Vetas and Vetas Ghana reveals the presence of eight major metabolites including the presence of marker compound epicatechin. CONCLUSIONS: Vetas Ghana was prepared in in-house pharmacy and phytochemicals were detected by using HPTLC and LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis, where biomarkers like epicatechin are identified including other biomarkers such as salicin and isosalicin.
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Identification and estimation of vicine bioactive compound in Momordica charantia L. fruit and coded Ayurvedic formulation using HPLC method p. 248
Ajay Kumar Meena, Arjun Singh, Kudingila Narasimha Swathi, Vikas Ojha, Amit Kumar Dixit, Raju Ilavarasan, Narayanam Srikanth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Momordica charantia L. is one of the important Ayurvedic drugs having anti-diabetic, anti-viral, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, and anti-lipolytic and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed for comparative fingerprint profiling of vicine bioactive compound in M. charantia L. fruit extract and coded Ayurvedic formulation extract through high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and for developing rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of vicine in fruit extract and coded Ayurvedic formulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dried powder of M. charantia L. fruit (10.3448 g) and powder of coded Ayurvedic formulation (13.4975 g) were extracted by using a Soxhlet apparatus for 24 h. For HPTLC finger printing, ethyl acetate: methanol: water: formic acid (7:3:1:0.5; v/v/v/v) was used as a solvent system. The quantitative analysis was performed by HPLC using acetonitrile and water (65:35 v/v) as mobile phase, with 1.0 mL/min flow rate at 275 nm, and the retention time of vicine was 3.688 min. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A band was obtained at 254 nm (green, Rf = 0.31) in standard and test solution tracks of M. charantia L. fruit extract and coded Ayurvedic formulation extract corresponding to vicine. The calibration plot showing linear relationship with concentration has been observed. A linear equation is y = 12.224x + 7.829, and the goodness of fit (r2) of 0.99 was obtained from the regression analysis, which showed proportional dependence between concentration and peak area. CONCLUSION: Results of the HPLC analysis showed that the coded Ayurvedic formulation extract and M. charantia L. fruit extract contains 0.0273% and 0.0603% of vicine biomarker compound, respectively.
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Medicinal plants for longevity: Evidence based Rasāyana approach of Ayurveda p. 258
Kamleshwar Singh, N Shiddamallayya, B Venkateshwarlu
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