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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 63-118

Online since Wednesday, January 19, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Experiential learning in Ayurveda p. 63
Narayanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_40_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Quantification of mercury after Samanya Shodhana (purifying process): A preliminary analysis p. 65
Sonam Sagar Bhinde, Biswajyoti J Patgiri
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_36_21  
BACKGROUND: Parada (mercury, Hg) is one of the important core ingredients in Rasa Aushadhi (metalo-mineral preparations). But owing to its origin, many metals and minerals are likely to be present in mercury as impurities. Direct use of such impure mercury may cause various types of complications, and hence preprocess of mercury is essential prior to its therapeutic use. Almost all classical texts related to Rasa Shastra (Ayurveda pharmaceutics for metalo-mineral preparations) have emphasized Parada Shodhana (purifying process of mercury) but with a variety of methods. These methods need to be revalidated with comprehensive methodology to develop its standard operative procedure (SOP), because standardization of the drugs is very crucial to ensure quality, efficacy, and reproducibility. Hence, to begin with, purifying process of mercury mentioned in Rasatarangini was adopted in the present research work. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Present study aimed to develop pharmaceutical standardization of purifying process of mercury accomplished by quantification of mercury percentage through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: purifying process of mercury was done in three batches with lime powder, garlic, and rock salt, as mentioned in Rasatarangini. ICP-AES was carried out on the samples of unprocessed mercury, mercury after processing with lime powder (intermediate stage), and processed mercury after processing with garlic and rock salt. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: It was observed that processed mercury became bright silver in color and luster was increased in comparison to unprocessed mercury. The total average loss of mercury was 28.2%. ICP-AES analysis showed that the percentage of mercury decreased to 99.93% from 99.97%. CONCLUSION: Results of the present pharmaceutical process will help future researches to reproduce the same results and could be considered as SOP. Decrease in mercury % and introduction of arsenic and cadmium in the processed mercury indicate that trace elements of media are added in permissible quantity during this process.
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Metabolic characterization of Achillea millefolium L. through ultraviolet absorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis p. 72
Dolly Kain, Suresh Kumar, Jamil Ahmed Khan,   Vandana, Amrita Suryavanshi, Atul Arya
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_17_21  
BACKGROUND: Achillea millefolium L. is an aromatic herbal plant of family Asteraceae having characteristically finely divided leaves that give a fern-like appearance and corymbose cluster inflorescence that gives a flat-headed appearance to the plant. OBJECTIVES: To study absorption patten of mature and immature plant extract using UV spectroscopy, to study the different functional groups present in mature plant extract using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and to study various compounds present in the mature plant extract using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immature and mature A. millefolium have been collected from Pathanteer, Mendhar, Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir. For metabolic characterization of A. millefolium, ultraviolet (UV) absorption, FT-IR, and GC-MS have been used. RESULTS: UV spectroscopy of immature and mature plants reveals the clear difference in their absorption pattern with high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the mature plant. FT-IR analysis of the mature plants reveals the presence of different functional groups including alkyl-substituted ether, secondary amine, and carboxylic acid. GC-MS analysis reveals the presence of 70 compounds including 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy, neophytadiene, phytol, ethyl oleate, vitamin E, stigmasterol, γ-sitosterol, and α-amyrin, which are reported to have different medicinal properties. CONCLUSION: Achillea millefolium has shown versatile metabolic composition, which contributes to its different medicinal activities in the literature.
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Botanical standardization, phytochemical analysis, and antioxidant studies of various fractions of Atibala [Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet] leaves p. 79
Rajesh Bolleddu, Sama Venkatesh, Anupam K Mangal, Subhose Varanasi, Deboleena Paria, Peyyala Venkata Vara Prasad, Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Venkateshwarlu Bandi, Narayanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_8_21  
BACKGROUND: Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (family: Malvaceae) is a perennial herb with golden yellow flowers called as Atibala in Ayurveda. The roots of this plant were widely used in traditional system of medicine as aphrodisiac, uterine tonic, and leaves are used in bronchitis, gonorrhea, fever, and urethritis. AIM: In this study, histological, powder microscopical studies of A. indicum (Malvaceae) leaves, followed by total phenolic, flavonoid content, antioxidant potential of hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anatomical, powder microscopical studies were carried out according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Hydroalcoholic extract was subjected to fractionation with different solvents, performed phytochemical studies for all fractions, and screened for DPPH (diphenyl picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and reducing power capacity. RESULTS: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all the fractions. The total phenolic content of hydroalcoholic/mother extract and all fractions was ranged from 20 to 40 mg GAE/g. The flavonoid content of mother extract and all fractions was measured; values ranged from 16 to 30 mg RE/g. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by ethyl acetate fraction (IC50-60 µg/mL), followed by butanol fraction (IC50-95 µg/mL). The reducing powers of all the extracts were comparable with those of positive control butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). CONCLUSION: The high content of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds are responsible for antioxidant activity. Therefore, ethyl acetate fraction of A. indicum leaves can be considered as a promising candidate for natural plant sources of antioxidants.
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Local health traditions (LHTs) of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura p. 89
Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Binod Bihari Dora, Janardhanan Anjana, Gyati Anku, Tapashi Borah, Ashish K Tripathi, Priya Vij, Chinmay Rath, Anupam Kumar Mangal, Narayanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_6_21  
AIM: Tripura is a state that covers wide valleys and plains that make up the vivid landscape. More than half of Tripura remains covered by green and moist deciduous forests. Many rural and tribal communities of the Kailashahar, Unakoti district of Tripura depend on traditional systems for the treatment of ailments. The present work has been conducted to document local health traditions (LHTs) from traditional healers and the utility of medicinal plants for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As per the intramural project allocated by the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi to the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar has conducted a seasonal Medico Ethno Botanical Survey in the forest of Kailashahar subdivision of Unakoti district, Tripura during the year 2018–19. LHTs were documented according to the standard format provided by the Ministry of Ayush, Government of India by interviewing local traditional healers; thereafter, a collection of medicinal plant specimens, as well as digital photography of plants were used for treatment in various health conditions and for healing purposes. The properties of all herbal formulations were compared and correlated with the Ayurvedic literature and presented systematically and scientifically following the standard protocol. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Medico Ethno Botanical Survey team conducted a survey and documented 33 LHTs with 15 polyherbal and 18 single herbal formulations of 50 plants from traditional healers of the study area. Documented formulations have been used for the treatment of seven human body systems, namely locomotor, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, integumentary, endocrine, and urogenital. CONCLUSION: LHTs documentation throws light on the traditional practices for the treatment of human ailments of different body systems by using locally available plants and plant products. Procedures are economic, effective in treatment, and feasible for the rural and tribal populace in the management of health. Herbal formulations are validated with Ayurvedic fundamental principles to understand their high potential medicinal value.
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Pharmacognostic characterization and antibacterial activity of Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl leaves: A traditional Himalayan medicinal plant p. 104
Shubham Sharma, Pankaj Kalia, Kalpna Palsra, Tushar Attri, Huma Khan, Vijay Kumar Kapoor, Swati Pundir
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_3_21  
BACKGROUND: Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl (synonym Brugmansia arborea; family Solanaceae) is one of the total seven species of Brugmansia which is commonly known as angel’s trumpet. It has analgesic, antinociceptive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, and various other activities. Despite its numerous medicinal properties, it has never been explored for its potential against bacterial species; also, no publication has been made on pharmacognostical characterization and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) investigation of its leaves. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to evaluate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, HPTLC profiles of B. suaveolens leaves along with the assessment of in-vitro antibacterial activity of its various fractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B. suaveolens collected from sub-Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India was authenticated and then studied for various pharmacognostic and physicochemical parameters employing proper quality control methods for medicinal plant materials designed by the WHO. Extracts and fractions of air-dried coarse plant powder were prepared and were identified for the presence of various classes of compounds using preliminary phytochemical screening. HPTLC profile for quantitative evaluation of atropine in leaves of B. suaveolens was carried out and lastly, fractions were assessed for antibacterial activity by using disc diffusion method against chloramphenicol as standard. RESULTS: Transverse section, powder microscopy, leaf constants, and physicochemical parameters revealed valuable data to set up standards for the plant. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates were found to be present. HPTLC showed 7.79–13.20%w/w of atropine in the plant. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fraction showed encouraging results against four strains of Gram-negative bacteria with good zone of inhibitions. CONCLUSION: The present study provides referential information for identification, authentication, and standardization of this highly important crude drug.
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BOOK REVIEWS Top

Nutritional advocacy in Ayurveda: A pictorial guide p. 115
V Ashwathykutty, V Rakesh Narayanan
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_83_21  
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Local health traditions (LHTs), oral health traditions (OHTs), and ethno-medicinal practices (EMPs): Methodical approach and critical appraisal to establish novelty and uniqueness p. 117
Amit Kumar Rai, N Shiddamallayya
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_82_21  
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