|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 213-222
Classical Ayurveda herb Gojihva and its one of the source plants Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f.: A comprehensive review
Vishal Kumar1, Yashika Bidhuri2, Shivani Ghildiyal1, Punam Aggarwal3, Ashish Kumar Tripathi4, Tanuja Manoj Nesari1
1 Department of Dravyaguna Vigyan, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Dravyaguna Vigyan, Bhagwant Ayurvedic College and Bhagwant Hospital, Muzzaffar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India
4 Medicinal Plant Research, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||20-Jul-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||15-Feb-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||16-Aug-2023|
Dr. Yashika Bidhuri
Department of Dravyaguna Vigyan, Bhagwant Ayurvedic College and Bhagwant Hospital, Muzzaffar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 251315
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The herb Gojihva is enumerated in Ayurveda as a Shaaka (vegetable) and is also a medicine in the management of various diseases. The official source of Gojihva is as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India is Onosma bracteatum Wall. However, at present many botanical sources, Caccinia glauca Savi., Trichodesma indicum R.Br., Elephantopus scaber L., Launaea species., and Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. (L. N) are also considered as botanical sources of Gojihva by many scholars. Gojihva is mentioned in major Ayurveda classics but a comprehensive data regarding its synonyms, properties, and uses are not framed in a systematic manner. Further, there are no published contemporary reviews for its one of the source plants Launaea nudicaulis L. (Hook.) f. Thus, a comprehensive review of Gojihva is done from various Ayurveda classics. The relevant information about L.N is collected from research articles published in various journals, floras, and books. The review revealed that various synonyms (Darvipatri, Godhumika, Kharpatri) indicating morphology of plant are given to Gojihva in Nighantus. The pharmacodynamics attributes are Tikta rasa (bitter taste), Laghu guna (light), Sheeta veerya (cold potency), Katu vipaka (pungent biotransformation), and Kaphapittaghna (pacifies Kapha and Pittadosha). It is indicated for external and internal administration for various diseases such as Raktapitta (bleeding disorder), Kushta (skin diseases), Prameha (diabetes mellitus), and Vrana (wound). L.N is reported for anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-microbial potential. The review suggests that L.N is not evaluated on scientific parameters for most of the classical Ayurveda indications. Therefore, the present article may provide the scope for the rational evaluation of L.N on various classical Ayurveda indications.
Keywords: Ayurveda, Chikitsagrantha, Ethno-medicine, Samhita, Shaaka
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar V, Bidhuri Y, Ghildiyal S, Aggarwal P, Tripathi AK, Nesari TM. Classical Ayurveda herb Gojihva and its one of the source plants Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f.: A comprehensive review. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2023;8:213-22
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar V, Bidhuri Y, Ghildiyal S, Aggarwal P, Tripathi AK, Nesari TM. Classical Ayurveda herb Gojihva and its one of the source plants Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f.: A comprehensive review. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Sep 23];8:213-22. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2023/8/3/213/383700
| Introduction|| |
Ayurveda classics are a treasure of principles and practices exclusively aimed at maintenance of health and combating a variety of disorders. Gojihva is one of the herbs mentioned in Ayurveda as a Shaaka (vegetable) by Acharya Charaka and Acharya Sushruta. In Charaka samhita, Gojihva shaaka is enumerated for Visarpa (erysipelas), Nakhadanta visha (animal bite), Vrana (wound), and Raktapitta (bleeding disorders).,, In Sushruta samhita, other indications such as Kushta (various skin diseases), Prameha (diabetes mellitus), Jwara (fever), Shwasa (breathing problem), Kasa (cough), Aruchi (anorexia), Nadi vrana (sinus), and Stana roga (breast diseases) are added in addition to Charaka samhita.,
Further, the herb is enumerated in Ashtanga sangraha,,,Ashtang hridaya, and in other Chikitsa grantha for various ailments.,,Nighantus contributed for various synonyms, pharmacodynamics attributes, and properties of Gojihva., This reflects that Gojihva is a potential and beneficial herb in the management of various disorders in the form of Aahara (diet) and Aushdha (medicine).
At present many botanical sources are in use under the name of Gojihva, that is, Onosma bracteata Wall., Caccinia glauca Savi., Trichodesma indicum R.Br.,Elephantopus scaber L.,Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. (L.N)., and Launaea species are also accepted as the botanical sources of Gojihva. Renowned botanist and also eminent Dravyaguna specialist, P. V Sharma, considered Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. as a source plant of Gojihva whereas Thakur Balwant Singh mentioned Launaea species like Launaea asplenifolia Hook. f., K.C Chunekar mentioned Launaea asplenifolia Hook. f. and Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. as another verity of Gojihva, and Vaidya Bhagwan Dash considered Launaea asplenifolia Hook. f. as a botanical source of Gojihva. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India accepted Onosma bracteatum Wall. as a botanical source of Gojihva.
It is reported that the natural habitat of Onosma bracteatum Wall. is found mainly in India and Nepal in high altitude regions, such as Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in north-western Himalayas, which shows a limited habitat of Onosma bracteatum Wall However, wide global availability of L.N is reported. Its global distribution includes India,,,,,,,,,, Spain, Sicily, Canary Islands, Sudan, Chad, Bahrain, Egypt, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, and Afghanistan.
Thus, there is a need to explore other botanical sources of Gojihva on the basis of Ayurvedic classical indications to know about other potential substitutes of Gojihva to decrease the burden on one plant species and to conserve biodiversity.
Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. belongs to the family Asteraceae. Ethno-botanically, the plant L.N is used for chronic constipation, skin allergy, fever, itching, ulcer, swelling, eczema, eruption, rheumatism, and toothache.
Pre-clinically, the plant is evaluated for its anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Clinically its wound healing activity is also reported. Thus, the herb is screened pre-clinically, but the claims namely Jwara and Shwasa for which the plant is enumerated in Ayurvedic classics are still unexplored. However, a review on other botanical source plant Onosma bracteatum Wall. but comprehensive review on the herb Gojihva and its source plant L.N is not available till date. Hence, a meticulous review work is done on Gojihva and its source plant L.N.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The information was collected from January 2018 to August 2022. The searching keys were Gojihva and Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. Gojihva+synonyms, L.N+pharmacological activity, L.N+etnomedicinal use, and L.N+botanical description. All the available classical Ayurvedic texts viz. Charaka samhita, Sushruta samhita, Ashtanga sangraha, Ashtanga hridaya, Kashyapa samhita, Sharangdhara samhita, Chikitsa granthas-Siddhasara samhita, Chikitsa kalika, Chakradutta, Gadanigraha, Bhaishajyaratnawali, Rajmartanda, Shabdachandrika and lexicons of plants of Ayurveda-Madanpala nighantu, Kaideva nighantu, Bhavprakasha nighantu, Raja nighantu, Priya nighantu, Nighantu adarsha, Mahaaushadha nighantu, Dhanvantari nighantu, Saushruta nighantu, Saraswat nighantu and Chamatkari nighantu were searched for the herb Gojihva. The texts which contained the data about Gojihva were examined carefully, and after omitting the repeated information, presented in precise tabular format, in a systematic manner, with regards to its synonyms, Rasa panchaka (pharmacodynamics attributes), Doshaghnta, therapeutic uses and dosage forms for various disease conditions. Herb L.N was screened for its distribution in various floras, ethano-medicinal uses, pharmacognostical characteristics, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, and clinical studies from Pubmed and Google scholar database. The collected information was analyzed and systematically presented.
Gojihva in Ayurveda classics and Nighantus
Synonyms of Gojihva
Ayurvedic Nighantus has given various synonyms based on morphology, properties, and uses of Gojihva. However, the basonym Gojihva by which the herb is enumerated in Samhitas was reported from all Nighantus. Other than Gojihva, total 18 synonyms were given which are helpful in the identification and rational use of herb in various diseased conditions [Table 1].
|Table 1: Various synonyms of Gojihva according to Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus|
Click here to view
There is a difference in opinion among Nighantus regarding pharmacodynamics attributes of the herb. However, the observation revels that most of Nighantus have been considered its Tikta rasa (bitter taste), Laghu guna (light property), Sheeta veerya (cold potency), Katu vipaka (pungent biotransformation), and Kaphapittaghna doshanghnta (Kapha and Pittadosha pacifying effect) [Table 2].
|Table 2: Rasapanchaka and Doshaghnta of Gojihva according to Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus|
Click here to view
The herb is enumerated in different dosage forms for external and internal administration in the management of various disease conditions. In Charaka samhita the herb is enumerated for Visharpa, Vrana, Nakhadanta visha, and Raktapitta, which indicates its Rakta and Pittadosha pacifying activities.,, In addition to these new indications, Kushta, Shwasa, Kasa, etc. are added by Acharya Sushruta., In Nighantus other indications such as Masurika [lentil (seed of Lens culinaris) shaped pustular eruptions on skin], Pratishyaya (cold), and Daha (burning sensation) are added. It shows that the herb is beneficial for a wide variety of disorders [Table 3].
|Table 3: Therapeutic uses of Gojihva according to Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus|
Click here to view
Various primary and secondary dosage forms as per utility, palatability, and to enhance therapeutic potency are mentioned. A total of nine dosage forms including Kwatha (decoction), Kalka (paste), Sarpi (ghee), Taila (oil), and Churna (powder) are used. Further it is also used in the preparation of Rasaaushadhi (medicines prepared by metal & minerals). [Table 4]
|Table 4: Dosage forms of Gojihva according to various Ayurvedic classics|
Click here to view
Contemporary review of (L.N)
Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. is a perennial herb.. It belongs to Class Magnoliopsida; Order Asterales; Family Asteraceae; Genus Launaea Cass.; Species nudicaulis. The synonyms are Launaea nudicaulis var. divaricata (Desf.) Batt., Launaea nudicaulis var. foliosa Maire, Launaea nudicaulis var. intricata Batt.
Gojihva is a perineal glabrous herb capable of growing up to 40-50 cm in height. It has a short woody caudex with one or few basal leaf rosettes. The caudical leaves, measuring 2–12 × 0.5–3.5 cm, are rather variable, narrowly spathulate in outline with acute apex. Flowering session is March to June, with the following properties: Inflorescence; in a single capitulum with a variable number of flowering branches; peduncles 2–15 mm long, wiry, spreading-erect. The flowers are usually yellow in color.,,
Cyto-morphological studies reflect that Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. of two regions of Rajasthan showed n=9 with 9:9 distribution of chromosomes at A-I. Thus, there is no reported variation in cyto-morphology due to difference in geographical condition.
Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. has widespread distribution. It is found in Spain, Sicily, Canary Islands, Sudan, Chad, Bahrain, Egypt, Nile Delta, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordania, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, and Afghanistan. The plant is listed in vegetation in Chott Zehrez lake of Djelfa (Algeria) and identified as rare species. In North Africa, Launaea species is one of the most common genera in the arid and Saharan regions. There are 10 species of Launaea available in the region; out of which Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. is one plant. In Pakistan, it is found in Karachi and the Indus delta Sindh [Figure 1].
In India, it is found in the semi-arid zone at Ajmer and in Haryana district as a weed in wheat fields. The plant is reported as growing on the walls of the campus of Banaras Hindu University in winter season. It is found in flora of Presidency of Madras, Presidency of Bombay, Bihar, West Bengal, Manipur, and Uttarakhand [Figure 1].
It can grow in alluvial soil, coastal areas, desert, island, mountains, and plains. It is also frequently found in moist and sandy soil, cultivated fields, gardens, forest, and waste places.
Launaea nudicaulis (whole plant decoction) is used for chronic constipation in Cholistan desert of Pakistan. The leaf juice of L.N is used for skin allergy by Malayali tribals in Kolli hills of Tamil Nadu. The leaves are used in constipation, fever, itching in skin, ulcer, swelling, eczema, eruption, rheumatism, and toothache in Sadda city, Pakistan.Launaea have been used for the treatment of various disorders of liver, lungs, and stomach, as well as to heal infected wounds in North Africa. The plant leaves in the form of infusion (1 in 10) in 15–30 mL dose is used for anti-inflammatory and purgative activities by the people of Kollimalai hills trace, Tamil Nadu. It is used in curing fever and skin issues and it is called as Jungli booti in India and Pakistan. The local population of Bahrain too uses this herb in curing fever.
Launaea nudicaulis leaf showed the presence of different phytochemicals which differs with extractive medium. The leaf of Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. was assessed for the presence of various phytochemicals in five different extracts viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water. The petroleum ether extract showed the presence of tannins and saponins. The chloroform extract showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, and flavonoids. The acetone extract showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. The methanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids. The water extract showed presence of tannins and terpenoid. Essential oil (1 mL) was isolated from 2.8 kg fresh Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. plant grown in Omanby using Clevenger’s apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS instrument. A total of 17 compounds were found in the oil where E-Citral and Z-Citral were main compounds in 30% and 22% quantity, respectively. Secondary metabolites in the roots of plants such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid are also reported. Eight compounds namely, Scopoletin, lupeol, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 6-hydroxy flavone, 7-methoxy flavone, and kaempferol are also isolated from L.N.
50% hydroethanolic leaf extract of the L.N exhibited fungi toxicity against Colletotrichum falcatum. In another study, methanolic leaf extract showed highest anti-fungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by reducing fungal biomass by 20%–75%.
The Methanolic Dimethyel sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, and chloroform extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (Gram-); Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+);Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens; Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and Serratia marcescens bacterial strains, respectively.
Butanolic (BuOH), Methanolic (MeOH), and Ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extracts of L.N have been reported having 89.62%, 86.18%, and 71.57% antiradical activity respectively, in DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay.
The ethanolic extract of L.N in the dose of 250 and 500 mg given for five weeks has reported hypoglycemic effect with elevation in serum insulin secretion. Both extracts decreased blood glucose levels about 53.8% and 68.1%, respectively, compared to the initial (P ≤ 0.05).
Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity
Four new sphingolipids (Nudicaulin A, B, C, and D) were isolated from methanolic extract of L.N. These compounds showed moderate inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase in concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value ranges 103–193 μM. Out of these four, Nudicaulin A had maximum lipoxygenase inhibition activity followed by Nudicaulin D.
Insecticidal and herbicidal activity
Insecticidal and cytotoxicity activities of L.N against flour beetle, Sabz tela of cotton plants in brine-shrimp assay method are reported. Methanolic extract of L.N at 0.786 mg/cm2 concentration has shown 27.5 ± 5% Insecticidal activity while both alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed 60%–100% cytotoxicity at 1mg/ml concentration. 100 and 1000 parts per million (ppm) methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions of L.N showed herbicidal potential due to allochemicals against radish growth is reported.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
The aqueous extract of L.N was evaluated against different inflammatory and analgesic models. Significant peripheral analgesic effect (70% inhibition) at 30 mg/kg in abdominal writhing was reported. The anti-inflammatory effect in formalin-induced paw edema at dose 100 mg/kg showed 66% maximum inhibition in edema. In capsaicine-induced edema at a dose of 300 mg/kg the aqueous extract showed 51% reduction in edema.
Ethanolic shoot extract of L.N in different concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was tested for its anti-proliferative activity. The anti-proliferative effect was 77.20% in MCF7, 75.20% in H1299, 74.60% in Hep G2, 74.44% Caco-2, 72.60% in HCT116 and 70.80% in PC-3 cell lines with Ic 50 values of 35, 20, 25.50, 25.50, 23.60 and 28 μg/mL, respectively.
Corrosion inhibition activity
Methanolic (MLN) and aqueous acidic extracts (ALN) of L.N were tested for the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. The results revealed that MLN and ALN behaved as mixed type corrosion inhibitors with predominant anodic effectiveness. Inhibition efficiencies obtained from weight loss and electrochemical experiments were up to 92.5% for MLN and 87.2% for ALN.
Electron microscope scanning and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed a significant improvement on the surface morphology of the mild steel plate after treatment with MLN as well as ALN. MLN was found to be more potent than ALN. The results showed that L.N extracts could serve as efficient corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid environment.
| Discussion|| |
The evidence for use of Gojihva is traced back from ancient times. Ethno-medicinally, the herb is used in the management of fever, skin disorders, constipation, rheumatism, and toothache. In Ayurveda, the herb is enumerated as an external and internal remedy to manage Jwara, Vrana, and Kustha in various dosages forms [Table 3]. It is worthy to mention that in Ayurveda Shaaka (vegetable) of Gojihva is also mentioned as wholesome to combat Raktapitta,Kushta, Jwara, Kasa, and Aruchi diseases., The usefulness of Gojihva in ethano-medicine and Ayurveda supports each other however, few additional ethano-medicinal indications, that is, constipation, rheumatism, and toothache are to be explored scientifically to extend the use of herb.
Pharmacodynamic attributes reflect astringent, pungent taste, cold potency, and Kapha and Pittadosha pacifying properties of herb.,
The source plant L.N is also reported for its antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, anti-microbial,, and hypoglycemic activities. However, few indications (fever, toothache, and constipation) mentioned in ethnomedicinal practices and also in Ayurveda are still unexplored scientifically. Most of the studies are either in vitro or preclinical only; a case report on chronic wound healing is published.
The presence of phenolic compounds in L.N has contributed its antioxidant potential. It is well accepted that oxidative stress is associated with pathology and progression of many diseases. In this regard, L.N may play an important role to quench the free radicals and to manage undesirable cellular injuries. Thus, L.N may emerge as a novel antioxidant and anti-aging compound, useful in Alzheimer’s disease and other oxidative stress disorders. In addition to this, presently diabetes is known as a prevalent metabolic disorder affecting global population, hypoglycemic activity of L.N may be evaluated to generate an economic and natural solution for the effective management of this disease. Lipoxygenase enzymes are present in immune, epithelial, and tumor cells and are responsible for inflammation, skin disorder, and tumorigenesis. Sphingolipids (Nudicaulin A, B, C, and D) isolated from methanolic extract of L.N showed moderate inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase in concentration-dependent manner. Thus, this property of L.N may be useful in the management of various diseases such as bronchial asthma, inflammation, cancer, autoimmune disorders, neurological disorders, tumors and atherosclerosis, in which lipoxygenase enzyme plays an important role in pathogenesis.,
Therefore, the review of classical Ayurvedic herb Gojihva and one of its source plants L.N showed encouraging results in classically indicated disorders such as PramehaVrana. However, there is a need to evaluate L.N for other classical Ayurveda indication to accept it as a true substitute of Gojihva for wide utility. As the genuine botanical representative of classical Ayurveda herbs is to be based on the pharmacological activities. Further L.N can also be used in agriculture practices as an organic herbicide and pesticide due to its reported activity in the protection of sugarcane crop from Colletotrichum falcatum which causes red rot disease and reduces the production of sugarcane. It is also reported for anti-fungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina fungus, which causes economic damage to sunflower, potato, and other crops.
| Conclusion|| |
Gojihva is widely mentioned in Ayurvedic classics but the scientific evaluation of the herb is very limited. However, the gray areas for further research are unexplored classical indications (Kasa, Shwasa, Kushta, Jwara, and Visarpa) and ethnomedicinal claims (tooth ache, itching, rheumatism, swelling, and constipation) of the herb, which are well mentioned in Ayurvedic classics but still remains unexplored.
Further, apart from official accepted botanical source of Gojihva (Onosma bracteatum Wall.) other botanical sources found in various literatures viz. Launaea species, Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f., Caccinia glauca Savi., Trichodesma indicum R.Br., and Elephantopus scaber L. may also be scientifically evaluated to be used as substitutes.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Pandey K, Chaturvedi G, editor. Charak Samhita of Acharya Agnivesha Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, Sutrasthan 27/97. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2009. p. 538.
Shastri KA, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Vriddha Sushruta Ayurvedtattva Sandeepika Commentary, Sutrasthana 46/262-264. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2006. p. 37-8.
Pandey K, Chaturvedi G, editor. Charak Samhita of Acharya Agnivesha Vidyotini Commentary Chikitsasthana 25/89. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2009. p. 711.
Pandey K, Chaturvedi G, editor. Charak Samhita of Acharya Agnivesha Vidyotini Commentary Chikitsasthana 21/84. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2009. p. 603.
Pandey K, Chaturvedi G, editor. Charak Samhita of Acharya Agnivesha Vidyotini Commentary Chikitsasthana 23/220. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2009. p. 663.
Shastri KA, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Vriddha Sushruta Ayurvedtattva Sandeepika Commentary, Chikitsa Sthana 17/19. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2006. p. 467.
Sharma SP, editor. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta Shashilekha Commentary of Indu, Chikitsa Sthana 2/8. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 431.
Sharma SP, editor. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta Shashilekha Commentary of Indu, Uttara Sthana 30/49. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 783.
Sharma SP, editor. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta Shashilekha Commentary of Indu, Uttara Sthana 46/61. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 897.
Shastri KR, editor. Ashtanga Hridya of Vagbhata Sarvanga Sundara by Arunadutta and Ayurveda Rasayana by Hemadri Commentary, Uttara Sthana 38/40. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti Prakshan; 2016. p. 922.
Tripathi JP, editor. Chakradutta of Chakrapanidutta Bhavartha Sandeepani Commentary, Jwara Chikitsa Adhyaya 1/41. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 6.
Mishra S, editor. Bhaishajya Ratnawali of Govind Das Sen Sidhhiprada Commentary, Jwara Adhikara 5/1000. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti Prakashan; 2016. p. 80.
Kaladhar, editor. Sidhha Bhaisaja Manimala of Shri Krishna Ram Viashvanarakhya Commentary, Hritkyadi Varga 2/68. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2008. p. 14.
Chunekar KC, Pandey GS, editor. Bhavprakasha Nighantu on Bhavprakash of Bhavmishra, Guduchyadi Varga 4/250. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 2015. p. 456.
Tripathi I, editor. Raj Nighantu of Acharya Narhari Pandit Dravyaguna Prakashika Commentary, Shatahvyadi Varga Verse 86-87. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2016. p. 78.
Thomas V, Nair SNV, Ved DK, Shankar D. Controversial identities of medicinal plants in classical literature of Ayurveda. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2020;11:565-72.
Vaidya SB. Nighantu Adarsh, Sehdevyadi Varga. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 769.
Sharma PV. Dravyaguna Vigyan Vol. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2015. p. 453.
Thakur Balwant Singh Ji, Chunekar KC. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Brihattrayi. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pustakalaya; 2015. p. 145.
Dash VB. Materia Medica of Ayurveda, Shaka (chapter 20). New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company; 2020. p. 326.
Goyal S, Rath S, Verma N. Conceptual recapture of Gojihva (Onosma bracteatum
Wall.). Int J Ayurveda Pharma Res 2022;9:79-87.
Kumar A, Kaur V, Pandit K, Tuli HS, Sak K, Jain SK, et al
. Antioxidant phytoconstituents from Onosma bracteata
Wall. (Boraginaceae) ameliorate the CCl4
induced hepatic damage: In vivo
study in male Wistar rats. Front Pharmacol 2020;11:1-18.
Sharma BM. A phytosociological study of a weed community in fallow land in the semi-arid zone of India. Weed Sci 1981;29:287-91.
Singh S, Malik RK, Balyan RS, Samar S. Distribution of weed flora of wheat in Haryana. Indian J Weed Sci 1995;27:114-21.
Singh A. Observations on the vascular wall flora of Banaras Hindu
University Campus, India. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci 2011;1:33-9.
Mall N, Srivastaval PN, Singh R. First record of host plants of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from India. J. Aphidol. 2010;24:85-6.
Fischer CEC. Flora of The Presidency of Madras, Authority of Government of India; 1957. p.560.
Cooke. The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay. London: Tailor and Francis; 1904. p. 356.
Banerjee SP. Materials for a Flora of North Bihar-I: Champaran District, Nelumbo. Bul Botanical Surv India 1968;10;183-89.
Chowdhary HJ. Plants of Indian Botanic Garden. Kolkata: Botanical Survey of India; 2007. p. 717.
Khan MH. Ethno-Medicinal Plants of Manipur (North-East India)-Thoubal District, Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh. Dehradun; 2014. p. 120.
Shah R, editor. Edible plants of North-West Himalayas, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Dehradun; 2015. p 134.
[Last accessed July 30, 2020].
Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f. — The Plant List [Last accessed on July 30, 2020].
Ahmad S, Wariss HM, Alam K. Ethnobotanical studies of plant resources of cholistan desert, Pakistan. IJSR 2014;3:1782-88.
Xavier TF, Kannan M, Auxilia A. Traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of different skin diseases. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2015;4:1043-53.
Muhammad S, Hussain M, Rahman IU. Indigenous medicinal usage of family Asteraceae in sadda lower Kurram agency: A case study. AJST 2016;07:3998-4003.
Singh AK, Yadav HL, Singh CS. In vitro antifungal activity of Launaea nudicaulis
(Hook.) f. against the test pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum
Went. Indian J Sci Res 2017;15:61-3.
Rashid S, Ashraf M, Bibi S, Anjum R. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Launaea nudicaulis
(Roxb.) and Launaea resedifolia
(Linn.). PJBS 2000;3:630-32.
Belboukhari M, Cheriti A, Belboukhari N. In vitro antioxidant activity of Launaea nudicaulis
(Asteraceae) growing in Southwest of Algeria. AST 2014;6:52-5.
El-Newary SA, Afifi SM, Aly MS, Ahmed RF, El Gendy AEG, Abd-ElGawad AM, et al
. Chemical profile of Launaea nudicaulis
ethanolic extract and its antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced rats. Molecules 2021;26:1000.
Belboukhari N. Investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Launaea nudicaulis
from southwest of Algeria. Biomed J Sci Tech Res 2019;23:17173-78.
El Darier SM, Kamal SA, Marzouk RI, Nour IH. Anti-proliferative activity of Launaea fragilis
(Asso) Pau and Launaea nudicaulis
(L.) Hook.F. Extracts. Biomed J Sci Tech Res. 2021;35:27492-96.
Kumar V, Ghildiyal S, Sherkhane R, Nesari TM. Gojihva (Launaea nudicaulis
[L.] Hook.f.), a potential herb for chronic wound healing: A case study. J Ayurveda Case Rep 2020;3:61-5.
Tripathi I, editor. Gada Nigraha of Sodhala, Pratham Prayoga Khanda 1/17. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana; 2012. p. 4.
Sharma PP, editor. Raj Martanda of Shri Bhojraj Vidyoteeni Commentary, Visha Roga Adhikara29/29. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 81.
Sharma P, editor. Shabda Chandrika of Chakrapanidutta, Vrikshadi Varga 1/198. New Delhi: CCRAS; 1989.
Tripathi HP, editor. Madanpala Nighantu of Acharya Madanpala, Abhayadi Varga Verse 292. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2009. p. 61.
Sharma PV, editor. Kaideva Nighantu of Acharya Kaideva Pandit, Aushadhi Varga Verse 733-734. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2016. p. 136.
Sharma PV. Priya Nighantu, Sharadi Varga Verse 54. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti Prakashan; 2015. p. 129.
Jayatilak JP, editor. Saraswat Nighantu, Mahavrikshadi varga Verse 44. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vidya Bhavan; 2006. p. 17.
Sharma SP, editor. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta Shashilekha Commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana 7/105. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 58.
Shastri KR, editor. Ashtanga Hridya of Vagbhata Sarvanga Sundara by Arunadutta and Ayurveda Rasayana by Hemadri Commentary, Sutrasthana 6/78. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti Prakshan; 2016. p. 101.
Pandey G, Dwivedi RR, editor. Sodhala Nighantu of Acharya Sodhala, Karveeradi Varga: Verse 43. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2009. p. 173.
Sharma PV, editor. Madhava Dravyaguna of Acharya Madhav, Shaakavarga 22/12. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vidya Bhavan; 1973. p. 51.
Pandey K, Singh AN, editor. Gunaratnamala of Acharya Bhavmishra, Guduchyadi Varga. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Publications; 2006. p. 293.
Sen S, editor. Dravyaguna Sangraha of Chakrapani Vibhavdipika Commentary, Shakavarga Verse 18. Varanasi: Chaukhamba publications; 2008. p. 71.
Sharma H, Satyapal, editor. Kashyap Samhita of Vridha Jeevak Vidyotini Commentary, Kalpasthana 8/143. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 1976. p. 200.
Tripathi JP, editor. Chakradutta of Chakrapanidutta Bhavartha Sandeepani Commentary, Visha Chikitsa Adhyaya 65/28. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 545.
Tripathi I, editor. Gada Nigraha of Sodhala, Dwitiya Khanda 68/41. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana; 2012. p. 6.
Shastri BSM, editor. Bhavprakash Samhita of Bhavmishra Vidyotini Commentary, Madhyam Khand, Chikitsa Prakaran 1/218. Bombay: Khemraj Shrikrishna Das Prakashan; 2019. p. 516.
Shastri BSM, editor. Bhavprakash Samhita of Bhavmishra Vidyotini Commentary, Madhyam Khand, Chikitsa Prakaran 49/10. Bombay: Khemraj Shrikrishna Das Prakashan; 2019. p. 656.
Mishra S, editor. Bhaishajya Ratnawali of Govind Das Sen Sidhhiprada Commentary, Nadivrana Adhikara 50/29. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti Prakashan; 2016. p. 486.
Mishra S, editor. Bhaishajya Ratnawali of Govind Das Sen Sidhhiprada Commentary, Pratishyaya Adhikara 3/77-81. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti Prakashan; 2016. p. 63.
(L.) Hook.fil. Available form https://www.gbif.org/
[Last accessed January 1, 2020].
[Last accessed January 1, 2020].
Naidu VSGR, editor. Hand Book on Weed Identification. Jabalpur: Directorate of Weed Science Research; 2012. p. 197.
Kaur K, Ramanpreet, Gupta RC, Kumari S. Cyto-morphological studies of some dicot plants from Rajasthan (India). Cytologia 2015;80:353-62.
Nedjimi B, Beladel B, Guit B. Biodiversity of halophytic vegetation in Chott Zehrez lake of Djelfa (Algeria). AJPS 2012;3:1527-34.
Benmeddour T, Laouer H, Akkal S, Flamini G. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Launaea lanifera
Pau grown in Algerian arid steppes. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015;5:960-64.
[Last accessed July 30, 2020].
[Last accessed July 30, 2020].
[Last accessed on August 5, 2020].
Anand RM, Nandakumar N, Karunakaran L, Ragunathan M, Murugan V. A survey of medicinal plants in Kollimalai hill trace Tamil Nadu. IJNPR 2006;5:139-143.
Belboukhari N, Cheriti A. Ethnomedical and antimicrobial studies of Launaea nudicaulis
. EJEAF Che 2008;7:2749-53.
Al-saleh FS, Chudasama S. Trace metal concentrations in the medicinal plants of the flora of Bahrain. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2008;46:1-9.
Khatri S, Chhillar AK. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial analysis of Launaea nudicaulis. Int J Basic Appl Bio 2015;2:399-403.
Al-Mahrezi JA, Al-Sabahi JN, Akhtar MS, Selim D, Weli AM. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial screening of Launaea nudicaulis
grown in Oman. IJPSR 2011;2:3166-69.
Cheriti A, Belboukhari M, Belboukhari NN, Djeradi H. Phytochemical and biological studies on Launaea
Cass. genus (Asteraceae) from Algerian Sahara. Curr Topics Photochem 2012;11:67-80.
Mansoor F, Itrat A. Chemical studies of Launaea nudicaulis
Hook f. extracts with antioxidant and urease inhibitory activities. J Chem Soc Pak 2013;35:233-37.
Banaras S, Javaid A. Management of Macrophomina phaseolina
by extracts of Launaea nudicaulis
. Mycopath 2015;13:7-11.
Riaz N, Parveen S, Saleem M. Lipoxygenase inhibitory sphingolipids from Launaea nudicaulis
. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2012;14:545-54.
Rashid S, Ashraf M, Anjum R. Insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of Launaea nudicaulis
(Roxb.) and Launaea resedifolia
(Linn.). PJBS 2000;3:808-09.
Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S. Shah N. Phytotoxic characterization of various fractions of Launaea nudicaulis
. J Med Plant Res 2012;6:1403-6.
Alkhathlan HZ, Khan M, Abdullah MMS. Launaeanudicaulis as a source of new and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acidic medium: A comparative study of two solvent extracts. Int J Electrochem Sci 2014;9:870-89.
Liu LW. Chronic constipation: Current treatment options. Can J Gastroenterol 2011;25(Suppl B):22B-28B.
Florence TM. The role of free radicals in disease. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1995;23:3-7.
Cai Z, Wang C, Yang W. Role of berberine in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2016;12:2509-20.
Mashima R, Okuyama T. The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology: New insights and future perspectives. Redox Biol 2015;6:297-310.
Chunekar KC, Pandey GS, editor. Bhavprakasha Nighantu on Bhavprakash of Bhavmishra, Haritakyadi Varga 1/26. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 2020. p. 5.
[Last accessed July 30, 2020].
[Last accessed July 30, 2020].
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]