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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 49-54

Preliminary analysis of Rasayana Vati—A novel herbal medicine


1 Central Ayurveda Research Institute, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Rasa shastra & Bhaishajya kalpana, IIARH, Rajkot, India
3 Department of Kaumarbhritya, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, India
4 Pharmacognocy Laboratory, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA), Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
5 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA), Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission24-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance03-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication30-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Renu Rani
Central Ayurveda Research Institute, Punjabi Bagh (West), Road No. 66, New Delhi under CCRAS, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdras.jdras_11_22

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  Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Rasayana Vati (RV) is an herbal preparation containing Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.), Haridra (Curcuma longa L.), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) in an equal proportion. It is a useful formulation in Beejadushtijanya Pandu (thalassemia). Till date, analytical data are not available for this herbal preparation. The present study was aimed to generate analytical data of the RV for its quality assurance. METHODS: Pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis was carried out at Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical laboratory, ITRA, Jamnagar. RESULTS: The presence of cork cells, starch grains, parenchymal cells, stone cells, pitted vessels, and collenchyma cells was the characteristic features observed in the microscopy of drug. Physicochemical analysis showed 3.7 kg/cm2 hardness, 0.15% w/w loss on drying, 25.19% w/w water soluble extract, and pH was 6. HPTLC showed five spots at 254 and four spots at 366 nm. CONCLUSION: The results of pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical parameters have generated preliminary data, which could be used as fingerprinting of RV for future researchers.

Keywords: HPTLC, pharmacognosy, Rasayana Vati, thalassemia major


How to cite this article:
Rani R, Bhinde SS, Kori VK, Patel KS, Harisha CR, Shukla VJ. Preliminary analysis of Rasayana Vati—A novel herbal medicine. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2023;8:49-54

How to cite this URL:
Rani R, Bhinde SS, Kori VK, Patel KS, Harisha CR, Shukla VJ. Preliminary analysis of Rasayana Vati—A novel herbal medicine. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Jan 28];8:49-54. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2023/8/1/49/366289




  Introduction Top


Ingredients of Rasayana Vati [RV, Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.), Haridra (Curcuma longa L.), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Willd. M.)] are being used in thalassemia and many other clinical conditions individually since long and proved to be safe and effective.[1] Based on our experience, these drugs were mixed together to form an herbal formulation, which is not mentioned in any classics. Reason behind keeping the name RV to this formulation is because of Rasayana (rejuvenating) property of its ingredients. All the drugs have hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and wound-healing properties along with the ability to increasing the life span of red blood cells.[2]

However, the quality is extremely important when it comes to drugs in particular. Finding quality herbal drugs can be difficult for a number of reasons. Since its foundation, the World Health Organization has been concerned quality of medicine. In its resolutions WHA31.33 (1978), WHA40.33 (1987), and WHA42.43 (1989), the World Health Assembly emphasized the necessity of ensuring the quality of herbal products by using appropriate standards. Herbal products are currently being used more widely than ever before, and their business potential is enormous. However, because of a number of factors, such as the impact of regional, seasonal, or climatic variations on plants, it becomes a monumental task to develop standard analytical and quality control profiles of them.[3] Additionally, the lack of reference standards is a challenge for the investigation. To overcome this lacuna, the present task was undertaken to generate preliminary analysis data of RV for its quality assurance.


  Materials and Methods Top


Collection, identification, and authentication of the raw drugs

Raw drugs of RV were procured from pharmacy, ITRA, Jamnagar, and were identified and authenticated at Pharmacognosy Laboratory, ITRA, Jamnagar. Ingredients and composition of the test drug are mentioned in [Table 1]. Voucher specimen number for Amalaki, Haridra, and Guduchi are ITRA/Phm/6355/20–22.
Table 1: Ingredients of Rasayana Vati

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Preparation of the drug

RV was prepared at pharmacy, ITRA, Jamnagar. Guduchi powder, Amalaki powder, and Haridra powder were taken in an equal proportion and mixed until homogenous mixture was achieved. Then, Amalaki juice (quantity sufficient for immersing mixture) was added to levigate this homogenous blend and triturated for 3 h. This process was repeated for three times. Then, Guduchi juice (quantity sufficient for immersing mixture) was added to levigate this homogenous blend and triturated for 3 h, and this process was also repeated for three times. Then, the final material was shed dried and sieved through mesh no 72# to get a fine powder. Then 5% gum acacia was added as a binding agent, and Vati was prepared and stored in an air-tight glass container.

Pharmacognostical evaluation

Organoleptic evaluation was carried out by researchers and recorded.

The microscopic evaluation of RV was done as per the guidelines of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India at Pharmacognosy Lab, ITRA, Jamnagar. RV was dissolved in a small quantity of distilled water, studied under the Carl Zeiss Trinocular Microscope attached with a camera, with phloroglucinol stain and without stain. The microphotographs were also taken by Kodak Easy Share C813 8.2 MP under the microscope.[4]

Physicochemical analysis

In physicochemical analysis, loss on drying (LOD) at 110°C,[5] pH value,[6] ash value,[7] water soluble extractive,[8] and methanol soluble extractive[9] were carried out and recorded.

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was performed as per the guidelines provided by API.[10] A CAMAG (Switzerland) HPTLC system equipped with a sample applicator Linomat V was used for the application of samples. Methanol extract (7:2:1) of RV was spotted on precoated silica gel GF 254 plate by the mean of Camag Linomate V sample applicator fitted with a 100 μL Hamilton syringe. The mobile phase consisted of toluene:ethyl acetate (9:1 v/v). After development, densitometric scan was performed with a CAMAG TLC scanner 3 in reflectance in absorbance mode at 254 and 366 nm under control of Win CATS software (V1.3.4 Camag). Then the plate was sprayed with vanillin sulfuric acid reagent followed by heating and then visualized in the daylight.

Following were the instrumental conditions: development time=30 min, development distance=10 cm, scanner=Camag scanner III, detection=deuterium lamp and mercury lamp, and data system=Win CATS software.


  Results Top


Pharmacognostical study of Rasayana Vati

Organoleptic characters

Various parameters of the material such as color, odor, touch, and taste of the RV were depicted in [Table 2].
Table 2: Organoleptic characters of Rasayana Vati

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Microscopic evaluation

The stained and unstained slides of powder microscopy of RV confirmed the features of cork cells and starch grains of Guduchi, starch grains and parenchymal cells of Haridra, stone cells of Amalaki, pitted vessels of Guduchi, silica deposits of Amalaki, collenchyma cells of Guduchi, fibers of Amalaki, group of scleroids of Amalaki, pitted vessels of Guduchi, lignified scleroids of Amalaki, lignified stone cells of Amalaki, scalariform vessels of Haridra, and lignified collenchyma cells of Guduchi, which are depicted in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Microscopic characters of Rasayana Vati

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Physicochemical assay of Rasayana Vati

The results are cited in [Table 3].
Table 3: Physicochemical constants of Rasayana Vati

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High-performance thin-layer chromatography

In HPTLC, in short ultraviolet (UV), 254 nm, five spots were observed in RV. Similarly, in long UV, 366 nm, four spots were observed [Table 4], [Figure 2].
Table 4: Chromatographic results of Rasayana Vati

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Figure 2: HPTLC plates of Rasayana Vati. (A) Chromatographic results (peak display) of Rasayana Vati at short ultra violet (254 nm), (B) chromatographic results (peak display) of Rasayana Vati at long ultra violet (366 nm)

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  Discussion Top


In previous time, medicines were mostly prepared on an individual patient basis, by the physicians or under the direct observation of the physician. But, in present scenario, the situation has entirely altered, and medicines have to be prepared in bulk production. Hence, the chances of adulteration[11] and quality compromise in pharmaceutical procedures cannot be ruled out because of many reasons. Hence preparing drugs with the standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) and generating its analytical data are vital for future quality assurance.[12]

This study revealed the presence of various important bioactive compounds of all three ingredients. It shows that pharmaceutical process of this formulation does not cause major changes in the constitution of its ingredients. The holistic nature of herbal medicines is reflected in the composition of intact bioactive components.

Values of physicochemical parameters are useful tools for the identification and authentication of the formulation. Hardness of Vati was 3.7 kg/cm,[2] which shows that 5% acacia in this formulation is enough to achieve desired hardness, because a tablet requires some amount of strength and resistant to mechanical shock during handling in manufacture, packaging, and shipping. Hardness is thus sometimes termed as the crushing strength.[13]

0.15% w/w loss was found on drying (LOD) of RV. This parameter is important for the determination of moisture content of the formulation. This minimal LOD indicates that levigations were followed by proper shed drying. It is always essential to have minimal moisture in the formulation to prevent the degradation of product, because an excess of water in drug encourages microbial growth and causes deterioration following hydrolysis.

Ash value was 11.37% w/w, water soluble extract was 25.19% w/w, and alcohol soluble extract was 10.47% w/w, which indicates the value of organic component, water solubility, and alcohol solubility of RV, respectively. Data of these parameters will be helpful as fingerprinting for future researchers.

pH of RV was 6, which indicates the final drug is slight acidic in nature, which might be obtained because of Amalaki, one of the components of RV.

HPTLC is a convenient and simple procedure by which the presence of phytochemicals can be verified through graph and densitogram. In the present HPTLC study, five spots obtained, at 254 nm, and four spots at 366 nm. The spot at 0.92 retardation factor (Rf) in 254 nm is indicative of the presence of phytochemicals of Amalaki, because the same was found in the research carried out by Kavita et al.[14] on Amalaki. Soumya and Chethan also find in their study on Haridra powder that the phytochemicals of Haridra spread from 0.04 to 0.95 Rf in 254 nm, which is also in line with the present study data.[15]

Limitation of the study

Shelf life study through the long-term microbial stability study or accelerated stability study could not be performed in this study. Herbs exhibit continuous chemical inconsistencies; hence, data of this study can be generalized for the RV, which is prepared from the ingredients collected from the same geographic source, during the same climatic condition, and hence the possibility of data variation cannot be denied if there is a change in these variables. Further study is necessary to explore other parameters related to the standardization and to be carried out in multiple batches to set the limit for the reference standards for the quality control of RV.


  Conclusion Top


This study has generated preliminary data of pharmacognosy and physicochemical parameters of RV. RV was prepared by following SMPs and hence the data generated here could be used as a preliminary step toward the development of quality control parameters of a new herbal combination.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Bhumi M, Patel KS, Kori VK Ayurveda therapy for thalassemia major as an adjuvant—A case study. Int J Curr Res 2018;10:70132-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbioni C Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:113-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Kor M The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol 2014;4:177.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Evans WC, editor. Morphological and microscopical examination of drugs. In: Trease and Evans, Pharmacognosy. 15th ed. W.B. Saunders Company Ltd; 1996. p. 569-70.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Anonymous. Appendix 8 (8.6). In: Indian Pharmacopeia. Vol. II. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, The Controller of Publication; 1996. p. 89.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Anonymous. Appendix 8 (8.11). In: Indian Pharmacopeia. Vol. II. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, The Controller of Publication; 1996. p. 95.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Anonymous. Appendix 2 (2.2.3). In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Part 1, Vol. VI. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2008. p. 242.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Anonymous. Appendix 2 (2.2.8). In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Part 1, Vol. VI. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2008. p. 243.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Anonymous. Appendix 2 (2.2.7). In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Part 1, Vol. VI. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2008. p. 243.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Anonymous. Appendices. In: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Part 2, Vol. 2. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health of Family Welfare; 2008. p. 165-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Pravin J, Anita J, Brijesh K Adulteration with special reference to Ayurvedic medicines. Ind J Ethnophytopharm 2018;4:38-48.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bhinde S, Galib R, Prajapati PK, Harisha C R Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical analysis of Amavatari Rasa—A herbomineral compound in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (Amavata). Res Rev: J Pharm Sci 2016;7:6-10.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Lachmen l, Herbert A Pharmaceutical dosage form. In: Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL, editors. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1986. p. 902.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kavita MB, Poornima B, Mallika KJ Amalaki (dried powder of Emblica officinalis Gaertn) as food supplement in dyslipidemia—An analytical study. Plant Archives 2016;16:217-25.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Soumya P, Chethan VK Standardization of Haridradi churna—Physicochemical assay and HPTLC profile. J Phyto 2017;6:167-70.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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