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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 145-150

Pharmaceutical and analytical characterization of Shatadhout ghrita


1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, KAHER'S Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidhyalaya & PG Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of PK, KAHER'S Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidhyalaya & PG Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission28-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance01-Apr-2022
Date of Web Publication14-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Rajeshwari V Kamat
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, KAHER'S Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidhyalaya & PG Research Centre, Belagavi 590003, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdras.jdras_37_22

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  Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Goghrita has a wide spectrum of medicinal properties for external as well as internal applications. Shatadhout ghrita (SDG) is a samskarita ghrita, derived when washed in cold water a hundred times. In this study, an attempt has been made to standardize the pharmaco-analytical parameters for SDG using modern tools. The aim of this study is to develop the pharmaceutical standards of SDG and to establish the analytical parameters of SDG. METHODS: Ghrita is procured from the GMP-certified KLE Ayurveda Pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Three samples of SDG were prepared as per classical method. Goghrita and all three samples of SDG were subjected to the analysis of organoleptic characters and physicochemical parameters such as pH, moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponification value, microbial load, according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, in Ayush-Approved ASU Drug Testing Laboratory, KAHER’s Shri B.M. Kankanwadi Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahpur, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Ghrita transformed into a semisolid, pale yellow, creamy texture, smooth to the touch with a pleasant odor. The final quantity of ghrita after 100 washes was increased, and all the analytical results for ghrita and three samples of Shatdhout ghrita were explained. CONCLUSION: The ghrita achieves a non-granular form from granular texture. Analytical parameters such as pH, moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and unsaponification value of all the three samples of SDG showed significant changes in comparison to ghrita.

Keywords: Acid value, Ghrita, iodine value, moisture content, pH, saponification value, Shatadhout ghrita, unsaponification value


How to cite this article:
Jain N, Kamat RV, Koralli A. Pharmaceutical and analytical characterization of Shatadhout ghrita. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2022;7:145-50

How to cite this URL:
Jain N, Kamat RV, Koralli A. Pharmaceutical and analytical characterization of Shatadhout ghrita. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 25];7:145-50. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2022/7/2/145/356055




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda is a scientifically proven branch of medicine and has been in practice for thousands of years. Ancient acharyas practiced Ayurveda and gave scientific explanations for each disease and medicine. Goghrita has a wide spectrum of medicinal properties for external as well as internal applications. It has madhura rasa, snigdha guna, sheeta virya, and is madhura vipaka in nature and tridoshashamaka.[1]Ghrita has the prabhava of samskaranuvartana,[2] implying that it attains the properties of other medicines when administered alongside while not losing its own properties.

Shatadhout ghrita (SDG) is a samskarita ghrita, derived when washed in cold water a hundred times.[3] The verse “Samskarohigunataraadhanaam[4] implies alteration of innate characteristics of a dravya and acquisition of additional gunas on the native gunas of that dravya. It is a unique formulation that can be prepared with ease and is used for various skin disorders and also indicated for visarpa[5] (herpes), trishna (thirst),[6]vrana (wound),[7]atisara (diarrhea),[8]arsha (hemorrhoids),[9]rajyakshma (tuberculosis),[10]daha (burning sensation over skin), jwara (fever),[11]vatarakta (gout),[12]bhagna (fracture),[13]jaloukavrana (wound occurs after leach therapy),[14]garbhasrava[15] (bleeding during pregnancy), netraprasadana karma[16] (eye disorder’s management), etc. for topical use. It is sheeta, vata, pittahara in nature. As per the recent literature review, there were no such works carried out in terms of characterization and standardization of SDG, which are not mentioned in the Ayurvedic pharmacopeia. In this study, an attempt has been made to standardize the pharmaco-analytical parameters for SDG.


  Materials and Methods Top


A standard operative procedure was developed for the preparation of optimum quality SDG.

The following are the steps followed.

Flow chart of preparation of SDG

  1. Procurement: Cow’s ghee is procured from the GMP-certified KLE Ayurveda Pharmacy, Belgaum.


  2. Authentication: Ghrita was analysed to check the purity and authentication parameters.


  3. Container specification: A clean, round-bottom copper vessel with a 14 x 14 inches diameter and 4 inches height was taken. The 100 g Goghrita and 200 ml of water were placed in the vessel and washed with another globular, round-bottomed copper vessel with a diameter of 4 cm.


  4. Sample preparation and water quantity: Three samples of Shatdhout ghrita were prepared [Figure 1][Figure 2][Figure 3][Figure 4] using the classical method. For each sample, 100 g of ghrita was taken in a clean copper vessel. The quantity of water is not specified in the classics. For the procedure, the quantity of water taken for each wash was double that of Ghrita, i.e., 200 ml.


  5. Cold water temperature: In the text Vaidhak shabda sindhu “sheeta toyena dhoutam”[3]/washing with cold water is mentioned. For the preparation, water was taken at a temperature of 18–20 °C.


  6. Temperature maintenance: Ghrita was washed till the water temperature reached 24–25°C. The room temperature was maintained at 28–30 °C.


  7. Time duration and rotations: For each wash, the time required for this procedure was approximately 1.5–2 min with 100 hand rotations. Though time duration and number of rotation per cycle is not mentioned in the classics, 100 rotations per cycle was considered as per our preliminary findings.


  8. Washing cycles: The water was drained out and fresh water was again taken for the next cycle. This procedure was carried out a hundred times.


  9. Analytical investigations: Goghrita and all three samples of SDG were subjected to the analysis of organoleptic characteristics and physicochemical parameters such as pH, moisture content,[17] acid value,[18] iodine value,[19] saponification value,[20] unsaponification value,[21] microbial load,[22] according to Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, in Ayush Approved ASU Drug Testing Laboratory, KAHER’s Shri B.M. Kankanwadi Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahpur, Belgaum.
Figure 1: SDG I

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Figure 2: SDG II

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Figure 3: SDG III

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Figure 4: SDG I, II, III

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  Observation and Results Top


It was observed that during the first wash, Ghrita absorbed water in a maximum quantity and acquired a creamy texture, and subsequently, till the 8th or 9th wash, Ghrita absorbed more water and its quantity increased. Results were shown in [Table 1]. After that, the absorption capacity decreased, and thus, washing alone took place. After completion of washing a hundred times, SDG transformed into a semisolid, pale yellow, cream texture, smooth to the touch with a pleasant odor. Results were shown in [Table 2]. Due to the pressure applied during washing, the granular texture of ghrita became non-granular and acquired a buttery-like consistency. The weight of each sample was SDGI 179.8 g, SDGII 213 g, and SDGIII 189.2 g, and the average weight gain was 94%. Ghrita has a 5.5 pH, 0.148% moisture content, 1.39 acid value, 174.19 saponification value, 1.2% unsaponification value, 33.73 iodine value, 2 cfu/mL fungal count, and 7 cfu/mL bacterial count. All the parameters were within the limit according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. The pH of all the samples of SDG was raised to 7.0 [Graph 1], the moisture content increased to 50.19%, 50.19%, and 53.41%, with an average of 51.26% [Graph 2]. The acid value decreased to 1.106, 1.107, and 1.107, and the average was 1.145 [Graph 3]. The saponification value decreased to 91.30, 82.98, 87.96, and the average was 87.41 [Graph 4]. The unsaponification values were 1.14%, 0.87%, 1.19%, and the average was 1.06% [Graph 5]. The iodine value decreased to 34.48, 12.44, 9.41, and the average was 15.44 [Graph 6]. The microbial load, i.e., fungal count, was 7, 6, and 3 cfu/mL, and the average was 5.33 cfu/mL [Graph 7]. The bacterial count is 21, 24, and 21 cfu/mL, with an average of 22 cfu/mL [Graph 8]. Results were shown in [Table 3].
Table 1: Quantity taken of Goghrita and obtained quantity of each sample of SDG after hundred washes

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Table 2: Organoleptic characters of Goghrita and SDG

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Graph 1: pH of ghrita and SDG

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Graph 2: Moisture content of ghrita and SDG

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Graph 3: Results of ghrita and SDG acid value

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Graph 4: Saponification value of ghrita and SDG

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Graph 5: Unsaponification value of ghrita and SDG

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Graph 6: Iodine value of ghrita and SDG

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Graph 7: Fungal count of ghrita and SDG

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Graph 8: Bacterial count of ghrita and SDG

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Table 3: Analytical results of Goghrita and SDG

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Precaution

It is observed that washing for a longer period in a copper vessel turns ghrita into greenish color due to an oxidative reaction. Ghrita should not be left in a copper vessel for a longer duration. To prevent rancidity, it should be stored in a freezer.


  Discussion Top


pH: SDG

had a neutral pH, which does not irritate the skin. Moisture content: As SDG is a ghee preparation, samskara of ghrita with jala increases the moisture content, which nourishes the skin faster and helps to make it smooth and pacify the daha (burning sensation) and rukshata (dryness) of the skin. Acid value is to help determine the state of the condition and edibility of the fatty content (oil and ghee), as more free fatty acids cause rancidity. Therefore, a reduction in acid value reduces the chances of rancidity of Shatadhout ghrita, if stored properly.

Iodine value of shatadhout ghrita is less than that of ghrita, which indicates an increase in saturation. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature; hence, shatadhout ghrita remains solid and decrease in unsaturation helps to decrease the chances of auto-oxidation and thus increases the stability of the product. Although there is variation in iodine values of three samples of SDG from 9.41 to 24.48, because of the process of washing ghrita with water can be considered as oil in water type of emulsion which facilitates the fat splitting process and conversion of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, that depends on the pressure applied and speed of rotation during trituration which could have contributed for the slight increase of unsaturated fatty acids in the first sample of SDG leading to greater iodine value in sample one as compared to other two samples. Decrease in saponification value signifies that, due to hydration reaction, free hydroxide breaks the ester bond and converts the triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids, which are soluble in aqueous solution.

Reduction in unsaponification value signifies reduction in unsaturation. Thus, it helps to stabilize the product compared with ghrita. Trace quantity of unsaponifiable matter shows antioxidant and antibacterial effect. Although the microbial load, i.e., total fungal count and the bacterial counts, was slightly raised in comparison to ghrita due to manual procedure and exposure to environmental conditions, these counts are under limits which are under the approved range in the pharmacopoeia for fatty contents. It was observed that ghrita achieves a non-granular form from granular texture, and due to this, it may be predicted that particle size reduces, the surface area increases, and faster absorption occurs through the skin. Due to ghrita samskara in Tamra Patra, SDG possesses an anti-inflammatory action on wounds. Ghrita possesses sheeta guna, which is enhanced with jala samskara.


  Conclusion Top


Thus, by adopting the proper pharmaceutical methodology, uniform, homogeneous, and creamy consistency of SDG can be obtained. As per Ayurveda, the role of water and vessel is most important in the preparation of medicine, and in SDG preparation, both these factors are helpful to potentiate the medicine. Besides the antibacterial and antiviral activities of copper, it also acts as a catalyst to split the fatty contents. Analytical parameters such as pH, moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and unsaponification value of all the three samples of SDG showed significant changes in comparison to ghrita. SDG is a beneficial remedy for burns and bleeding disorders. Thus, this study helps to understand the pharmaceutical procedure and analytical parameters of SDG.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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