• Users Online: 135
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 55-61

Bioactive potential of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. plant: A wild edible plant

Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission03-Aug-2021
Date of Decision03-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance06-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication07-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Priyanka Suresh Patil
Botany Department, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_41_21

Rights and Permissions

BACKGROUND: Bridelia retusa is a species which belongs to the genus Bridelia, included in Phyllanthaceae family which is a deciduous, large- or small-sized tree. It is generally referred as Mahavira or aghan found in dry deciduous regions. The present investigation for study of phytochemical compounds, proximate analysis, and mineral composition of leaves, stem, stem bark, unripened, and ripened fruit of B. retusa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The collected material was dried and crushed into fine powder for further analysis. For the study of presence of secondary metabolites, qualitative phytochemical analysis of plant was carried out. For the proximate analysis, various plant parts such as leaves, stem, stem bark, unripened, and ripened fruit were used. In the proximate analysis, different parameters like ash, crude fiber, crude protein, moisture, dry matter, and crude fat was studied. Different macro- and micro-elements were studied from plant by standard method. RESULT: In the present work, highest amounts of nitrogen (2.42 ± 0.23%), potassium (1.97 ± 0.1%), iron (697.55 ± 1.29 ppm), zinc (201.05 ± 0.5 ppm), copper (132.73 ± 0.28 ppm), manganese (330.09 ± 1.2 ppm), and sodium (0.10±3.72 %) were found in the leaves of B. retusa. Higher phosphorus (0.21±0.1%) and calcium (1.67±0.2%) in stem bark was observed in B. retusa, respectively. The above results revealed rich amounts of macro- and micro-elements; hence, the whole plant is nutritionally important. The ash and crude proteins were more in leaves, and crude fibers are in the stem when compared with other parts of B. retusa. In the present study, we found that ash (17.5%) in the fruit, dry matter (90%) in the stem bark, crude fiber (52.5%) in the stem, crude fat (62.5%), crude protein (15.12%), and moisture (20%) in leaves were more when compared with other parts of the plant. Tannins and saponins are frequently observed in all parts of the plant. Alkaloids were present in all parts of the plant, except stem. CONCLUSION: The results revealed rich amounts of macro- and micro-elements; hence, the whole plant is nutritionally important. The acetone and alcohol extracts show highest phytochemicals than the other solvent extract. The plants are rich in tannin and saponin.

Keywords: Bridelia retusa, mineral composition, nutritional potential, phytochemical, proximate

How to cite this article:
Patil PS, Jadhav VD. Bioactive potential of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. plant: A wild edible plant. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2022;7:55-61

How to cite this URL:
Patil PS, Jadhav VD. Bioactive potential of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. plant: A wild edible plant. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 10];7:55-61. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2022/7/1/55/350053

  Introduction Top

For the treatment of different diseases and illnesses, plants have been used as traditional medicines.[1] Secondary metabolites are produced in the plant due to the stressful environment by internal adaptations, which alter the plant biochemical profile. Secondary metabolites have unique pharmacophores and medicinal properties; hence, researchers are interested in secondary metabolites.[2] For given external treatment to cure the wound, the extract of leaves of Bridelia retusa was mixed with the leaves of Curculigo orchiodes; oils of caster, coconut, and gingelly were applied on a wound.[2],[3]

A total of 60–70 species have been identified from the genus Bridelia.[4] Candelabria Hochst, Gentilia A. Chev and Beille, Pentameria Klotzsch ex Baill, Tzellemtinia Chiov. are the synonyms of the genus Bridelia. In the current situation, in addition to 60–70 species, more number of subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars are recognized in the genus Bridelia.[5] In India, up to an altitude of 1000 m height, this tree species was found to be an exception, which is found in the dry region.[6]

The plant plays an important role in the existence of life on the earth, and the use of plants as medicine is as old as humanity. After the long-term use of synthetic drugs, they show side effects on the health of humans, so we can move toward the herbal drug which is low cost, high potency, and less or no side effects.[7] Today throughout the world, there is an increased interest in Ayurveda and thus the demand for various medicinal plants in the production of Ayurvedic medicine is ever increasing. There is no wonder that the one-fourth population of the world is dependent on traditional medicines for the treatment of various ailments.[8]

Pharmacognostic studies of the bark of B. retusa exposed that plants are having antiviral, hypoglycemic, and hypotensive properties.[9],[10] The bark is useful for the removal of urinary concretions, useful in lumbago and hemiplegia. The bark is used in liniment with gingelly oil for rheumatism.[10],[11] The plant possesses medicinal properties, which increases the interest of researchers toward the medicinal plant. The worldwide trend toward the utilization of natural plant remedies has created an enormous need for information about the properties of medicinal plants such as antitumor, anticancer, anti-analgesics, and insecticides.[12] The phytocompounds such as carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and secondary metabolites such as glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids are used as food and medicines in various ways.[12],[13],[14]

Skin rashes can be treated with paste bark powder of B. retusa, which was a herbal medicine used in Madugga tribes of Siruvani forest.[15] The bark powder of Bauhinia racemosa and B. retusa is given to develop sterile conditions in women, which acts as a contraceptive and to cure an earache fruit extract can be used.[16],[17] There is a report mentioning the alternation of sexes in a deciduous tree: temporal dioecy of B. retusa.[18] The intestinal worms of cattle can be removed by using leaves, and leaves are used as cattle feed also. The leaves are also used as antimicrobial agent.[19]

The B. retusa bark is used to treat rheumatism and urinary infection, promote fertility, and wound healing; leaves and fruits are used as stomachic, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal. In an earlier report of Kshirsagar and Singh[20] from Karnataka state, in the districts of Mysore and Coorg, for treating dysentery, the bark extract was used.[5] To determine that plants truly possess medicinal and food values, it is necessary to investigate the proximate constituent and nutrient values of plant parts. For that study of medicinal attributes of plants, we have investigated the plant parts of B. retusa.

  Materials and Methods Top

The plant material was collected in the flowering and fruiting stage from the nearest area of the Gaganbawada petrol pump. The specimen identification is done with the help of taxonomic keys and flora of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.[21] The collected plant specimen and prepared herbarium were deposited in the Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. For further analysis, we can use plant parts such as leaves, stem, stem bark, unripened fruit, ripened fruit, etc.

The collected plant material is washed with water and then material was shade-dried. After shade drying, the material was put in the oven for 40–60°C. After complete drying of the material, it was crushed into a fine powder with the help of a mechanical grinder. This fine powder was used for the further analysis. For the phytochemical analysis different solvent systems are used with the soxhlet extraction method. The phytochemical analysis of plant was studied by using Trease and Evans (1983)[22]; Brindha et al. (1981)[23],[24],[25] standard methods. In the proximate analysis of plant study different parameters such as dry matter and moisture; total ash; crude protein by using AOAC (1990)[26] standard method while crude fat and crude fiber was studied by using Sadashivam and Manikam[27] standard method. For the study of mineral composition from different parts of B. retusa, Hawk et al.[28] and Toth et al.[29],[30] standard method was used.

  Results Top

The photographs shows habit of the plant, male and female branches or flowers, ripened and unripened fruits, etc. [Figure 1][Figure 2][Figure 3][Figure 4][Figure 5]. The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals was studied with different chemicals. In that, phytochemicals such as tannins and saponins are the frequently found chemical compounds in all parts of the plant. Various solvents are used for analysis, such as petroleum ether, alcohol, acetone, chloroform, distilled water, showing various phytochemicals in the plant. Anthraquinone was only found in the stem. Plant parts such as leaves, stem bark, unripened and ripened fruits show a maximum number of phytochemicals in the selected solvent system. Only stem was showing the minimum number of phytochemicals in comparison with other plant parts. Alkaloid is a phytochemical which shows its presence in acetone in all parts of the plant, except stem. The unripened fruit shows the presence of alkaloid in petroleum ether other than the acetone. Plant parts such as leaves, unripened and ripened fruits show the presence of phytochemicals other than tannins and saponins, which are phenols, flavones, carbohydrates, xanthoproteins, coumarin, and glycosides [Table 1].
Figure 1: Habit of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Click here to view
Figure 2: Female flowering twig of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Click here to view
Figure 3: Male flowering twig Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Click here to view
Figure 4: Female flowers of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Click here to view
Figure 5: Unripened and ripened fruits of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Click here to view
Table 1: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of different parts of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Click here to view

The stem bark also shows the same phytochemicals like all parts, but only coumarin was absent. Other than the tannin and saponin phytochemicals, stem shows the presence of carbohydrate only. According to the present study, when compared with other solvents, more number of phytochemicals was observed in the alcohol and acetone, whereas petroleum ether showed less number. The highest amounts of phenols, flavones and carbohydrates were observed in ripened fruits when compared with unripened fruits [Table 1].

[Table 2] shows the proximate analysis of B. retusa. In the proximate analysis, it was observed that moisture content (20 ± 0.21%), crude fat (62.5 ± 0.12%), and crude protein (15.12 ± 0.24%) were more in leaves when compared with other plant parts. The dry matter (90 ± 0.9%) in stem bark, ash value (17.5 ± 0.13%) in ripened fruit, and crude fiber (52.5 ± 1.23%) in the stem were high. In the unripened fruit, crude fat and protein content found to be more when compared with the ripened fruit [Graph 1].
Table 2: Proximate analysis

Click here to view
Graph 1: Proximate analysis of B. retusa

Click here to view

Mineral analysis is shown in [Table 3]. In the mineral analysis, it observed that all micro-elements such as iron (697.55 ± 1.29 ppm), manganese (330.09 ± 1.2 ppm), zinc (201.05 ± 0.5 ppm), and copper (132.73 ± 0.28 ppm) [Graph 2], are present in high amounts in leaves when compared with other parts of B. retusa. The macro-elements such as nitrogen (2.42 ± 0.23%), potassium (1.97 ± 0.1%), and sodium (0.10±3.72%) in leaves, phosphorus (0.21 ± 0.1%) in the stem, calcium (1.67 ± 0.2%) in the stem bark, and magnesium (0.50 ± 0.22%) in the unripened fruit were more in comparison to other plant parts. Low percentage was found in magnesium (0.32 ± 0.5%), calcium (0.52 ± 0.22%), phosphorus (0.13 ± 0.01%) in ripened fruit; potassium (0.79 ± 0.4%) in stem; nitrogen (0.82 ± 0.2%) in unripened fruit, and sodium (0.06 ± 2.42%) in stem bark [Graph 3]. The least amount of micro-element was also recorded, such as iron (442.30 ± 0.33 ppm) in ripened fruit, manganese (1.00 ± 0.02 ppm) in stem bark, zinc (95.52 ± 0.8 ppm) in stem, copper (1.00 ± 0.01 ppm) in stem, stem bark, and ripened fruit [Graph 2].
Table 3: Mineral analysis

Click here to view
Graph 2: Micro-element analysis of B. retusa

Click here to view
Graph 3: Macro-element analysis of various parts of B. retusa

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

Tannins are used for various biological activities such as possessing a lack of detrimental effect on mammalians, herbivores and insects. The ash content was analyzed for the study of quality and purity of crude drugs in the powder form. This qualitative study of drugs is necessary for its preparation. Diet is incomplete without fiber, protein, and fat. Proteins are used in various metabolic reactions in our bodies. The ash content determines the minerals present in the plant. The wide spectrum antimicrobial activity of methanol and acetone extracts is due to the presence of alkaloids and tannins. The presence of macro- and micro-elements is helpful for plant growth and development. The phytocompounds such as phenol, tannin, terpenoid, and saponin presence are known after the preliminary phytochemical study, which are familiar for their antimicrobial activity. In addition, tannins have shown invariable combination with proline-rich protein which would result in suppression of cell wall protein formation.[31]

The earlier authors Mali and Borges have collected materials of B. retusa from Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary in Maharashtra, showing absence of saponins, but my working place, Gaganbawada shows the presence of saponins, which was probably due to environmental conditions.[32] Inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators of cytokines are due to tannins, and other polyphenols are also reported.[33] All tested phytochemicals show positive result for methanolic extract. The antimicrobial activity was observed due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloid, saponins, and terpenoids, which are implicated in the presence of these metabolites, suggesting great capacity of the plant as a source of useful phytomedicines.[34] In the way of development of inflammatory diseases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a major role and inflammation is a complicated method. ROSs formed endogenously or exogenously are related with the development of different diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and the aging process.[35] The ability to inhibit polyphenol oxidase that causes the oxidation of phenolics and its ease of evaporation when compared with water makes methanol a suitable choice of solvents for the extraction of a variety of phenolic compounds.[36]

  Conclusion Top

Preliminary phytochemical screening is helpful in the prediction of the nature of the drug and also for the detection of different polarity solvents. It was found that acetone and alcohol are appropriate solvents for the extraction of phytochemicals. In the present investigation, it was found that tannin content was highest from the selected phytochemicals, which is useful as antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and more activities. The glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and phenols are present in different extracts which are pharmacognostically important phytoconstituents. From the proximate analysis, it was found that leaves are showing maximum nutrition potential than the fruit because of the presence of a high amount of crude protein.

The minerals were present in acceptable amount for human utilization, and therefore they are recommended for medicinal use. In the present study, the selected plant species have a sufficient amount of mineral content; hence, these plants may be useful as feed and fodder for the livestock. For interpretation of therapeutic actions and for designing chemically pure medication, explanation of element specification will be helpful. The analysis of different primary metabolites in B. retusa showed a varied amount in its different parts and thus may be used in the production of pharmaceutical products. Protein, crude fibers, and fats are nutritional requirements of both humans and livestock; possibly, these plants could be useful feed supplements and as medicines to improve health and growth performance in humans and livestock.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Shelembe BG, Moodley R, Jonnalagadda SB. Secondary metabolites isolated from two medicinal plant species, Bridelia micrantha and Sidermyxylon inerme and their antioxidant activities. Acta Pol Pharm 2016;73:1249-57.  Back to cited text no. 1
Sanseera D, Liawruangrath B, Pyne SG, Liawruangrath S. Determination of antioxidant and anticancer activities together with total phenol and flavonoid content of Cleidion javanicum Bl. and Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss. Chiang Mai J Sci 2016;43:534-45.  Back to cited text no. 2
Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S Traditional knowledge of Kani tribals in Kouthalai of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu, India. J Ethanopharmacol 2005;102:246-55.  Back to cited text no. 3
Hoffmann P, Kathriarachchi H, Wurdack KJ A phylogenetic classification of Phyllanthaceae (Malpighiales; Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bull 2006;61:37-53.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ngueyem TA, Brusotti G, Caccialanza G, Finzi PV The genus Bridelia: A phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:339-49.  Back to cited text no. 5
Tatiya A, Saluja A, Kalaskar M, Surana S, Patil P Phytochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of Bridelia retusa Spreng, in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions: A possible mechanism of action. Eur J Pharma Med Res 2017;4:686-96.  Back to cited text no. 6
Ramesh N, Viswanathan MB, Saraswathy A, Balakrishna K, Brindha P, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Bridelia crenulata. Pharmaceut Biol 2001;39:460-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
Patil P, Jadhav VD (Rathod): Pharamacognostical evaluation of Antidesma acidum Retz. leaf: A wild edible plant. J Adv Sci Res 2014;5:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 8
Anonymous. The wealth of India. Raw Materials. 1988;2:295-97.  Back to cited text no. 9
Tatiya AU, Saluja AK Evaluation of phytochemical standards and in vitro antioxidant activity of tannins rich fraction of stem bark of Bridelia retusa (Li). Int J PharmTechnol Res CODEN (USA): IJPRIF 2010;2:649-55.  Back to cited text no. 10
Kirtikar KK, Basu BD Indian Medicinal Plants. 3rd ed. Dehradun: International Book Distributors Book Sellers and Publishers; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 11
Dhawale RB, Pawar NN Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant “Bridelia retusa” Lin. (leaves extract). Int J Adv Res 2015;3:385-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
Arunkumar S, Muthuselvam M Analysis of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of Aloe vera L. against clinical pathogens. World J Agric Sci 2009;5:572-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4: 685-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
Soudahmini E, Senthil GN, Panayappan L, Divakar MC Herbal remedies of Madugga tribes of Siruvani forest, South India. Natu Product Sci 2005;492-501.  Back to cited text no. 15
Jain A, Katewa SS, Galav PK, Sharma P. Medicinal plant diversity of Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan. Ind J Ethanopharmacol 2005;102:143-57.  Back to cited text no. 16
Jain A, Katewa SS, Chaudhary BL, Galav P. Folk herbal medicine used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribes of Southern Rajasthan. Ind J Ethanopharmacol 2004;90:171-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
Borges RM, Somanthan H, Mali S Alternation of sexes in deciduous tree: Temporal dioecy in Bridelia retusa. Curr Sci 1997;7:940-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
Adhav M, Solanki CM, Patel B, Gharia A. Evaluation of isoflavanone as an antimicrobial agent from leaves of Bridelia retusa (L) Spreng. Veg Reg Orient J Chem 2002;18:479-86.  Back to cited text no. 19
Kshirsagar RD, Singh NP Some less known ethanomedicinal uses from Mysore and Coorg districts, Karnataka state, India. J Ethanopharmacol 2001;75:231-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
Yadav SR, Sardesai MM Flora of Kolhapur District. Kolhapur: Shivaji University; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 21
Evans WC Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Singapore: Hartcourt Brace and Company Asia Pvt. Ltd; 1977.  Back to cited text no. 22
Brindha P, Sasikala, Purushotham RK Pharmacogostic studies on Merugan kizhangu. Bull Med Ethnobot Res 1981;3:84-96.  Back to cited text no. 23
Kokate CK Practical Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. New Delhi, India: Vallabh Prakashan Publication; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 24
Mace ME Histochemical localization of phenols in healthy and diseased tomato roots. Phytopathology 1963;16: 915-25.  Back to cited text no. 25
Jain P, Kumari Singh S, Sharma HP, Basri F Phytochemical screening and antifungal activity of Semecarpus anacardium L. (an anti-cancer plant). IJPSR 2014;5:1884-91.  Back to cited text no. 26
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC: Inc Suite; 1990.  Back to cited text no. 27
Sadashivam S, Manikam A. Biochemical Method for Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 105. New Delhi: Wiley, Eastern Ltd; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 28
Hawk PB, Oser BL, Summerson WH Practical Physiological Chemistry (Publ). USA: The Blakiston Co.; 1948.  Back to cited text no. 29
Toth SJ, Prince AL, Wallace A, Mikkenlsen DS Rapid quantitative determination of eight mineral elements in plant tissue systematic procedure involving use of a flame photometer. Soil Sci 1948;66:459-66.  Back to cited text no. 30
Hagerman AE, Butler LG The specificity of proanthocyanidin-protein interactions. Bid Chem1981;256:4494-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
Mali S, Borges RM Phenolics, fiber, alkaloides, saponin and cynogenic glycosides in a seasonal cloud forest in India. Biochem Systemat Ecol 2003;31:1221-46.  Back to cited text no. 32
Tatiya AU, Saluja AK, Surana SJ Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark of Bridelia airy—Shawii in rats. J Natu Remed 2008;8:18-23.  Back to cited text no. 33
Kunle O, Okogun J, Egamana E, Emojevwe E, Shok M Antimicrobial activity of various extracts and carvacrol from Lippia multiflora leaf extract. Phytomedicine 2003;10:59-61.  Back to cited text no. 34
Chawla AS, Handa SS, Sharma AK, Kaith B Plant antiinflammatory agents. J Sci Indus Res 1987;46:214-23.  Back to cited text no. 35
Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomás-Barberán FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, Chen SS Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2004;59:113-22.  Back to cited text no. 36


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded82    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal