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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 89-103

Local health traditions (LHTs) of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura


1 Survey of Medicinal Plants Unit, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India
2 Clinical Section, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India
3 Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India
4 Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

Date of Submission20-Jul-2021
Date of Acceptance06-Sep-2021
Date of Web Publication19-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nagayya Shiddamallayya
Survey of Medicinal Plants Unit, Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar 791111, Arunachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdras.jdras_6_21

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  Abstract 

AIM: Tripura is a state that covers wide valleys and plains that make up the vivid landscape. More than half of Tripura remains covered by green and moist deciduous forests. Many rural and tribal communities of the Kailashahar, Unakoti district of Tripura depend on traditional systems for the treatment of ailments. The present work has been conducted to document local health traditions (LHTs) from traditional healers and the utility of medicinal plants for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As per the intramural project allocated by the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi to the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar has conducted a seasonal Medico Ethno Botanical Survey in the forest of Kailashahar subdivision of Unakoti district, Tripura during the year 2018–19. LHTs were documented according to the standard format provided by the Ministry of Ayush, Government of India by interviewing local traditional healers; thereafter, a collection of medicinal plant specimens, as well as digital photography of plants were used for treatment in various health conditions and for healing purposes. The properties of all herbal formulations were compared and correlated with the Ayurvedic literature and presented systematically and scientifically following the standard protocol. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Medico Ethno Botanical Survey team conducted a survey and documented 33 LHTs with 15 polyherbal and 18 single herbal formulations of 50 plants from traditional healers of the study area. Documented formulations have been used for the treatment of seven human body systems, namely locomotor, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, integumentary, endocrine, and urogenital. CONCLUSION: LHTs documentation throws light on the traditional practices for the treatment of human ailments of different body systems by using locally available plants and plant products. Procedures are economic, effective in treatment, and feasible for the rural and tribal populace in the management of health. Herbal formulations are validated with Ayurvedic fundamental principles to understand their high potential medicinal value.

Keywords: Ayurveda, folk claim, local health traditions, medico ethno botanical survey, tripura


How to cite this article:
Shiddamallayya N, Dora BB, Anjana J, Anku G, Borah T, Tripathi AK, Vij P, Rath C, Mangal AK, Srikanth N. Local health traditions (LHTs) of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2021;6:89-103

How to cite this URL:
Shiddamallayya N, Dora BB, Anjana J, Anku G, Borah T, Tripathi AK, Vij P, Rath C, Mangal AK, Srikanth N. Local health traditions (LHTs) of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Oct 1];6:89-103. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2021/6/2/89/336034




  Introduction Top


Tripura is the second smallest state of North-East India. This state is largely covered with forests, and it remains less popular about its secrets and attractions of biodiversity and traditional knowledge. It is a wild stretch of land with mountain ranges, narrow rivers, intervening valleys, and diverse flora and fauna. The state is situated between the river valley of Myanmar and Bangladesh. The residents of the state are mainly involved in cottage industries, agriculture, and civil services. The rich biodiversity of Unakoti district, Tripura is an abode and a source of livelihood for local traditional healers. Till today, no studies have been conducted to document all local health traditions (LHTs) practiced in Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura. A sporadic survey was conducted in North Tripura with a report of 25 medicinal plants used in treatment in the villages of North Tripura and 19 plants used to treat health ailments in Halams, Tripuri, and Chakma communities of North Tripura.[1],[2] A research related to the enlisting of medicinal plants was used for treatment on a community basis in Tripura.[3],[4],[5] Scattered information of traditional healing practices available among the tribes has to be scientifically documented for further utilization in the subdivision and this is the need of the hour. The Medico Ethno Botanical survey team of the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar visited all forest beats and ranges of the Kailashahar subdivision of Unakoti district to document the LHTs from the tribal and rural pockets.

Study area

Unakoti district is in the northern part of Tripura and it covers an area of 686.97 sq. km with district headquarters at Kailashahar. The district is divided into two subdivisions, namely Kumarghat and Kailashahar. The present study covers the Kailashahar subdivision of Unakoti district, Tripura, which lies in 24.3268º North and 92.0126º East [Figure 1]. The place exhibits warm and humid subtropical climate. Annual rainfall varies from 2330 mm to 2520 mm. Different types of soil have been noticed, such as lateritic soil, alluvial soil, red loam, sandy loam soil, and reddish yellow brown sandy soil. The subdivision is populated with various tribes, namely Bengali, Bishnupriya, Manipuri, Darlong Muslim, Meitei Manipuri, etc.
Figure 1: Study area of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura for the documentation of LHT

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  Materials and Methods Top


The Medico Ethno Botanical survey team of the medicinal plant unit documented information related to LHTs from the forest beats of Hirachera and Paakirabad of Kailashahar range, Jarultali and Dhan Vilas of Chandipur range, and Jolai and Unakoti of Gurunagar range of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district of Tripura for the intramural research project as per the guidelines of the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of Ayush, Government of India during the year 2018–19. This study was completed in one year. The documentation of LHT was made through interviews of the experienced traditional healers of various tribes and communities of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti. Along with this, digital photographs of the plants, plant materials used for preparation of medicines and final prepared formulations of the drugs were recorded. Collected medicinal plant specimens were processed, poisoned, mounted on herbarium sheets, identified by using local and regional flora, and systematically preserved in internationally recognized herbarium with the acronym of ARRI at the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar.[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12] The nomenclature of plant species was updated as per the ICBN principles and rules.[13] Documented information is processed for validation with classical Ayurvedic literature and filled in the format of LHTs as per the guidelines of CCRAS, New Delhi, Ministry of Ayush, Government of India. Ayurvedic names have been provided for the medicinal plants with reference to classical literature. A total of 33 LHTs were documented, of which 15 were compounds and 18 were single from the study area.


  Result Top


Local traditional healers have been using plants available in their surrounding since ages for curing various disease conditions with promising results. The MEB survey team documented the LHT practices of traditional healers of the study area. The collected data are depicted systematically in [Table 1] as body system, name of the disease, botanical name of the plant, name of the family, Sanskrit name, part used, method of preparation with dose, and duration of the therapy. This study comprises 33 folk medicinal claims of 50 medicinal plants used in tribal healing practices. A few selected medicinal plants are presented in [Plate 1]. The glimpse of interaction with the traditional healers of Kailashahar, Unakoti is presented in [Plate 2].
Table 1: LHTs of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura

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Plate 1: Medicinal plants used in LHTs of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura

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Plate 2: Glimpse of data collection with LHT healers of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura

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  Discussion Top


The populace of Kailashahar, Unakoti district lives in harmony with the natural resources of widespread biodiversity. The local people depend on traditional healers for the treatment of various diseases. There are a number of wild and cultivated plant species that play a fundamental role as a source of medicine and food. Of the total of 33 folk claims, 15 are polyherbal and18 are single herb formulations that were collected from Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura.

The documented 33 LHT are related to seven human body systems, namely locomotor, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, integumentary, endocrine, and urogenital systems. Sandhivata, asthibhagna, and avabahuka are diseases associated with the locomotor system; amlapitta, kosthabadhata, kamala, krimi, gudabhramsa, arsha, and bhagandara are associated with the gastrointestinal system; tamaka swasa, kasa, and swasa are associated with the respiratory system; mutrakrichra and ashmari are associated with the urinary system; are dadgha, twakvikara, kushta, and khalitya are associated with the integumentary system; galaganda is associated with the endocrine system; and swetapradara is associated with the urogenital system.

Medicinal plants have unique properties to cure diseases. The plants used in LHT claims of Kailashahar, Unakoti, Tripura are enlisted as in systematic disorders. Disorders of the locomotor system are treated by using 11 plants, such as Cassia fistula L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Gossypium herbaceum L., Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., Oryza sativa L., Piper nigrum L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry, Tectona grandis L.f., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Sandhivata (osteoarthritis) is treated by using 02 polyherbal combinations, which include Saka (Tectona grandis L.f.), having the properties of sothahara, vedana stapana, and daha prasamana[14]; Lavanga (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry), having properties such as shoolprasamana, slesmahara, deepana, and pachana[15],[16]; and Ela (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton), having properties such as tridosahara, deepana, pachana, dahaprashamana, and balya.[17] Similarly, Karpasa (Gossypium herbaceum L) with properties such as vedanastapana, balya, and vata nashak[18],[19] and Parijata (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.) with properties such as sothahara, vedanastapana, and raktasodhaka[20] are the reasons to use plants for the treatment.

Asthibhagna (fracture) is treated by using the polyherbal combinations, namely Lavanga (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry) having properties such as shoolprasamana, slesmahara, deepana, and pachana[15],[16]; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) having properties such as sothahara, vedanastapana, vata samaka, and shoolprasamana[21],[22]; Maricha (Piper nigrum L.) having properties such as balya, deepan, paachan, vatanuloman, srotosodhaka, and shoolahara[23],[24],[25]; Aragvada (Cassia fistula L.) having properties such as sothahara, vedansthapana, and vatahara[26],[27],[28]; Shali (Oryza sativa L.) having properties such as sothahara, balya, vatanashaka, and vedanasthapana[29],[30]; and Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh not having any significant literary reference. All these are used in treating bone fracture.

Avabahuka (frozen shoulder) is treated by Manduk parni (Centella asiatica (L.) Urb), which has properties such as sothahara and balya and helps in increasing blood circulation.[31],[32]

Gastrointestinal system ailments are treated by using 16 plants, namely Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.,Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl, Corchorus capsularis L., Curcuma longa L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Lawsonia inermis L., Mimosa pudica L., Phyllanthus emblica L., Piper longum L., Piper nigrum L., Ricinus communis L., Sesamum indicum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Amlapitta (hyperacidity) is managed by polyherbal formulations, which include Arka (Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.) having properties such as kapha pittasamaka, deepana, pachana, pitta saraka, and rechaka[33],[34]; Maricha (Piper nigrum L.) having properties such as kaphasamaka, lalasravajanaka, deepan, paachana, yakruta uttejaka, vatanulomana, and ruchya[23],[25]; Hingu (Ferula assa-foetida L.) having properties such as vatanulomaka, pachana, deepana, rochaka, anulomana and soolaprashamana,[35],[36] and common salt.

Kostabadhata (constipation) can be treated with Eranda (Ricinus communis L.) due to its properties such as vidbhedana, anulomana, srotoshodhana, deepana, bhedana, vatasama, and sramshana.[37],[38],[39] Likewise, Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz) is also having the same properties as vatasamaka, deepana, pachana, anulomana, mruduvirechaka, srotoshodhaka, usna, and tridoshahara to cure constipation.[40],[41],[42].

Kamala (jaundice) is treated with a polyherbal formulation of Pippali (Piper longum L.) having properties such as deepana],[ rechana],[ ruchya],[ and tridosahara[43],[44]; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) having properties such as Rochaka, deepana, pachana, panduhara, vatanulomana, and amapachaka[21],[22],[45]; Maricha (Piper nigrum L) having properties such as deepana, paachana, yakrututtejaka, balya, srotoshodahaka, and ruchya[23],[24],[25]; and Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.) having properties such as tridosahara, deepana, anulomana, rochana, and yakrututtejaka.[46],[47],[48]

Krimi (worm infestation) is treated with a polyherbal combination of Bhunimba (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees) having properties of krimighna, yakrututtejaka, rechana, and deepana[49],[50] and Haridra (Curcuma longa L.) having properties such as vishaghna, krimighna, kustaghna, and anulomana andrakta sodhaka.[51],[52],[53]

Gudabhramsa (rectal prolapse) is treated with three single herbal formulations, namely Kalashaka (Corchorus capsularis L.) having properties such as swedala and atisarahara.[54] Similarly, Lajjalu (Mimosa pudica L) having properties such as atisarahara and pravahika, sangrahaka, raktasravahara[55],[56],[57] and also Madayantika (Lawsonia inermis L.) having properties such as stambana, which helps in pravahika,[58],[59],[60] are used in treatment.

Arsa (hemorrhoids) is treated with single and polyherbal combinations. Guduchi (Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.) has properties such as ushna, deepana, pachana, and anulomana[61],[62]; similarly, Eranda (Ricinus communis L.) has properties such as samsrana, shulahara deepana, pachna, bhedana, and shulahara[37],[38],[63] and Karpoora (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl) has properties such as atisarahara and visuchikahara. All these are helping inaruchi and adhmana.[64],[65]

Bhagandara (fistula) is managed by two single herbal formulations, such as Arka (Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.) having properties such as ushna and kaphaghna, which are used to treat udaravikara and help in agnimandhya, ajeerna, and vibanda.[33],[34],[66] Similarly, Tila (Sesamum indicum L.) having properties such as deepana, grahi, and sulaprashamana helps in conditions such as fistula.[67],[68],[69]

Respiratory system ailments are treated with nine plants, namely Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Justicia adhatoda L., Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link, Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Saccharum officinarum L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Tamaka swasa (bronchial asthma) is treated with a polyherbal combination of Maricha (Piper nigrum L.) having properties such as kaphaghna, kapha nisaraka, srota sodhana, kasahara, swasahara, slesmahara, chedana, and deepana[23],[24],[25]; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) having properties such as sotha hara, kaphaghna, swasahara, srotorodha nivaraka, vata kaphahara, and anulomana[21],[45]; and Ikshu (Saccharum officinarum L.) having properties such as slesma nisaraka.[70]

Kasa (cough) can be cured by either single or combination of two polyherbal drugs. Barbari (Ocimum basilicum L.) having properties such as sothahara, kapha nisaraka, kapaghna, kasahara, and swasahara are useful in treating cough.[71] Similarly, polyherbal combinations of Vasa (Justicia adhatoda L.) having properties such as sothahara, kasahara, slesmahara, kanthya, and kaphahara[72],[73],[74] and Sunthi (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) having properties such as sothahara, kaphaghna, kasahara, pratisyayahara, swasahara, srotorodha nivaraka, vata kaphahara, and anulomana help to manage the condition.[21],[45] The combination of both Dronapushpi bedha (Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link.) and Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) are used in the treatment of kasa. They have the properties such as kasahara, kaphahara, sothahara, kaphaghna, pratisyayahara, kaphavatasamaka[75],[76],[77] and kasahara, swarabheda, sothahara, kaphanisaraka, swarya,[78],[79],[80] respectively. Similarly Vasa (Justicia adhatoda L.) and Barbari (Ocimum basilicum L.) are also having the properties such as sothahara, kasahara, slesmahara, kanthya, and kaphahara[72],[73],[74]; sothahara, kaphanisaraka, kapaghna, kasahara, swasahara,[71] respectively for the treatment of kasa.

Swasa (childhood asthma) is effectively managed with a polyherbal combination of Tulasi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.) having properties such as kaphahara, kasahara, swasahara, and sothahara[81],[82],[83],[84] and Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.) having properties such as tridosaghna, deepana, kaphavata hara, and kasa swasahara.[85],[86],[87]

Urinary system disorder is managed with 12 plant species, namely Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Ferula assa-foetida L., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hordeum vulgare L., Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit., Phyllanthus emblica L., Piper nigrumL., Plantago ovata Forssk., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Saccharum officinarum L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb, and Terminalia chebula Retz.

Mutra krichra (oliguria) is treated with two polyherbal formulations of Maricha (Piper nigrumL.) having properties such as mutrakuchrahara and ushna[23],[24]; Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz) having properties such as mutrala[40]; Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.) having properties such as kasaya rasa, vedanasthapana, rasa, rakta dhatu hitakara, and tridoshajanya[88],[89]; Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.) having properties such as mutrala[46]; Kusmanda (Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.) having properties such as mutrajanana, bastisodhana, mutrakuchrahara, asmarihara, and mutraghatahara[90],[91]; and Ikshu (Saccharum officinarum L.) having properties such as mutrala and brukkarogahara[70] are good for the urinary system. Similarly, Isabagol (Plantago ovata Forssk.) having properties such as mutrajanana and mutrakuchrahara.[92]Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit not having any significant Ayurvedic literary references are used for the treatment of this disease.

Asmari (renal calculi) is treated with a polyherbal combination. Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.) having properties such as mutrajanana, mutra virajaniya, and mutrala are used in the treatment of renal calculi.[93],[94] Similarly, Hingu (Ferula assa-foetida L.) polyherbal combination is also have the same properties such as vedanasamaka, mutrajanana, and shoolahara[35]; Yava (Hordeum vulgare L.) have mutrakuchrahara, mutrahara, and lekhana [95,96]; Mulak (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin) have mutrala[97] and Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.) have mutrala[46] proper for the treatment of renal calculi.

Diseases of the integumentary system are treated with 10 herbal drugs, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees and Eberm., Cocos nucifera L., Mangifera indica L., Mimosa pudica L., Momordica charantia L., Ricinus communis L., Sesamum indicum L., and Shorea robusta Gaertn.

Dagdha (burn) is managed with a polyherbal and two single combinations of herbal drugs. In single herbal formulations, Amra (Mangifera indica L.) having properties of vranaropana, madhura rasa, and sheeta guna is used in treatment.[98],[99],[100] Similarly, Eranda (Ricinus communis L.) having properties to pacify daha, shula, and swedopaga is also used in treatment.[37],[38],[63] A polyherbal combination consists of Nimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.) having properties such as vrnashodhana, putihara, grahi, vranahara, and kushtahara[101],[102],[103]; Saal (Shorea robusta) having properties such as kushtagna, Swedopaga, shita guna, vranahara, sothahara, kandu, and vedanahara[104],[105],[106]; and Tila (Sesamum indicum L.) having properties such as vranaropana, snehana, madhura rasa, shoola prashamana, and vranshodhana.[67],[68],[69]

Twak vikara (skin disease) is treated with a polyherbal combination such as Karavellaka (Momordica charantia L.) having properties such as vrana sodhana, vranaropana, dahaprashamana, khustaghna, shita guna, krimighna, and raktadosahara[107],[108],[109]; Narikela (Cocos nucifera L.) having properties such as shita guna, charmarogaghna, trishnahara, snighdha guna, varnya, dahashamaka, kushtagna, and vranaropana[110],[111],[112]; and Karpoora (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl) having properties such as raktavardhaka, swedaghna, rakta dhatu vardhaka, kushtaghna, durgandhanasaka, tridosahara, and kustaghna.[64],[65],[113]

Kustha (leprosy) is treated with two single herbal combinations such as Lajjalu (Mimosa pudica L) having properties such as raktastambhana, vranaropana, sangrahika, raktasravahara, daha, and kustaghna.[55],[56],[57] Similarly, Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) having properties such as jantughna, vranashodhana, putihara, grahi, krimihara, vranaropana, and kushtahara is used for the treatment of skin disorders.[101],[102],[103]

Khalitya (hair fall) is managed with a single herbal formulation of Twak (Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees and Eberm.) having properties such as raktashodhaka, amadoshahara, and depana that are used for the treatment.[65],[114]

Traditional healers are using three plants, such as Acorus calamus L., Cassia fistula L., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L., to treat disorders of the endocrine system.

Galaganda (goiter) is treated with a single and a polyherbal formulation. In single herbal formulations, Aragwada (Cassia fistula L.) having properties such as shita guna, samsrana, shulahara, sothahara, and kaphanisarakara is used to treat goiter.[26],[27] Whereas the polyherbal formulations, Vacha (Acorus calamus L.) have lekhana, ushna, kaphanisarakara, vatahara, kaphahara, and kanthya[115],[116],[117] and Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) have kaphanisaraka, shita, sothahara, and samsrana properties.[78],[79]

Urogenital systems disorder is treated by using three herbs, namely Abroma augusta (L.) L.f., Piper nigrum L., and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Swetapradara (leucorrhea) is treated with a single and a polyherbal formulation. In single herbal formulations, Pishachakarpasa (Abroma augusta (L.) L.f.) having properties such as artavajanana, garbhashayautejaka, artavajanana, and garbhashayabalya is responsible for the successful management of leucorrhea.[118],[119] In polyherbal formulations, Guduchi (Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.) having properties such as vrushya, rasayana[61],[62],[120] and Maricha (Piper nigrum L.) having properties such as rajodosha hitakara, pachana, shulahara, aanahahara, pravahikahara, and sleshmahara is responsible for the successful management of leucorrhea.[23],[24],[25]


  Conclusion Top


A documentation study on LHTs followed in Kailashahar subdivision of Unakoti throws light on traditional practices for the treatment of human ailments of different body systems by using locally available plants and products. Many of the single and compound herbal formulations have been prepared and used for multiple health disorders. The procedures are economic, effective in treatment, and feasible for the local rural and tribal populace in the management of health. The formulations used are compared with the classical Ayurvedic texts to understand the fundamental principles of drugs used by the folk healers. The comparison shows a logical correlation between the practices of folk healers and documented Ayurvedic literature. Therefore, exploring the indigenous wisdom and its scientific validation, recognition in a well-established system of medicine such as Ayurveda is required due to its high potential medicinal value that is utilized in healing practices of Kailashahar, Unakoti, Tripura.

Acknowledgment

The authors are grateful to the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi for financial support. The cooperation and guidance of the local rural and tribal populace and the Department of Forest, Tripura state during the Ethno Medico Botanical survey. Authors are indebted to Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar for administrative support and technical assistance rendered by the field attendant and also the driver who helped the team travel from Arunachal Pradesh to Tripura.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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Singh KP, Sinha GP, Shukla BK, Choudhury G, Banik D Flora of Mizoram. Vol. II. Kolkata: Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forest; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Bennet SSR Name Changes in Flowering Plants of India and Adjacent Regions. Dehradun: Triseas Publications; 1987.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 791-3.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 246-50.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 177.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 719-21.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 600-2.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 98.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 550-2.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 331-5.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 198.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 362-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 143.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume III. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 115-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 170-3.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 56.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 7-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Sharma PV Classical Uses of Medicinal Plants. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Visvabharati; 2018. p. 366-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD An ICS: Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. IV. Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. New Connaught Place; 1980. p. 2651-3.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 3-6.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 61-3.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 433-6.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 10-11.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 350-4.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 90.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 58-62.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 156.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume III. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 51-2.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 753-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 180.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 47-8.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 275-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 91-2.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 103-4.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 758-60.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 85.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 4-6.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 544-6.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 36.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 162-5.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 72.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 45-6.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 68.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 748-50.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 125.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume-II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 98-101.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 180-2.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 115.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 57-8.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 761-3.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 182.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 34-5.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 198-202.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 61.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 8-9.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 120-3.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 167.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 126-7.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 638-40.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 516-8.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 241-4.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 28.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 138-9.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 707-9.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 116.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 35-7.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 253-6.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 97.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 127-8.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 513-6.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 132.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 162-7.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 128-9.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 702-4.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 33.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001.p. 97-8.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 239-41.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I. Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 26.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 14-7.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume IV. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2004. p. 55-6.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 414-7.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 798-800.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 101.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 103.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 175-6.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 154.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 661-4.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 122.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume III. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 7-8.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 149-52.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 44.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 124-5.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 671-3.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 168.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume VI. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2008. p. 137-8.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Bangalore: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 684-5.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 126.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 83-4.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 117-20.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 65.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume III. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 134-5.  Back to cited text no. 112
    
113.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume VI. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2008. p. 210-11.  Back to cited text no. 113
    
114.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 250-2.  Back to cited text no. 114
    
115.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 28-31.  Back to cited text no. 115
    
116.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 27.  Back to cited text no. 116
    
117.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume II. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 1999. p. 168-70.  Back to cited text no. 117
    
118.
Sharma PV Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1978. p. 610-2.  Back to cited text no. 118
    
119.
Sharma SK Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. National Academy of Ayurveda; 1998. p. 23.  Back to cited text no. 119
    
120.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part I, Volume I. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 41-2.  Back to cited text no. 120
    


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