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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 79-88

Botanical standardization, phytochemical analysis, and antioxidant studies of various fractions of Atibala [Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet] leaves

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Central Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Ministry of AYUSH, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Ayurveda, Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
4 Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajesh Bolleddu
Department of Pharmacognosy, Central Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Government of India, Kolkata 700091.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdras.jdras_8_21

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BACKGROUND: Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (family: Malvaceae) is a perennial herb with golden yellow flowers called as Atibala in Ayurveda. The roots of this plant were widely used in traditional system of medicine as aphrodisiac, uterine tonic, and leaves are used in bronchitis, gonorrhea, fever, and urethritis. AIM: In this study, histological, powder microscopical studies of A. indicum (Malvaceae) leaves, followed by total phenolic, flavonoid content, antioxidant potential of hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anatomical, powder microscopical studies were carried out according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Hydroalcoholic extract was subjected to fractionation with different solvents, performed phytochemical studies for all fractions, and screened for DPPH (diphenyl picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and reducing power capacity. RESULTS: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all the fractions. The total phenolic content of hydroalcoholic/mother extract and all fractions was ranged from 20 to 40 mg GAE/g. The flavonoid content of mother extract and all fractions was measured; values ranged from 16 to 30 mg RE/g. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by ethyl acetate fraction (IC50-60 µg/mL), followed by butanol fraction (IC50-95 µg/mL). The reducing powers of all the extracts were comparable with those of positive control butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). CONCLUSION: The high content of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds are responsible for antioxidant activity. Therefore, ethyl acetate fraction of A. indicum leaves can be considered as a promising candidate for natural plant sources of antioxidants.

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